migration

  • The Migration Crisis from the East-Central European Perspective: Challenges for Regional Security

    Nowadays, the common denominator of involvement of the EastCentral Europe in the international arena, and above all, the premise determining community of interest expressed in the European Union is the migration crisis. Despite the different circumstances of activity in the context of the migration crisis, states in the region express similar opinions on the consequences of immigration for security in the region. Above all, they emphasise the implications of immigration for the internal security of states. Given the complex nature of migration, this article focuses on the phenomenon of immigration in the EU, determining the causes of the escalation of the influx of immigrants and, above all, identifying the consequences for the security of states of East-Central Europe.

  • Citizenship, Migration, and the Nation–State: Exploring UK Policy Responses to Romanian and Bulgarian Migration

    Questions of citizenship and nationhood have increasingly gained prominence given the internationalisation of employment, especially with respect to the free movement of workers within the EU. Scholar Rogers Brubaker has suggested that an absence of a strong identity as a nationstate and the lack of an established national citizenship have contributed to “the confused and bitter politics of immigration and citizenship during the last quarter-century” in Britain. This legacy continues to this day. For instance, on the fi rst of January 2014, migration and employment restrictions on Romanians and Bulgarians were lift ed, provoking mass public outcry in the UK. In a recent poll, three quarters of respondents expressed concern about the possible infl ux of Romanians and Bulgarian migrants. Playing on populist fears, London mayor Boris Johnson quipped: “We can do nothing to stop the entire population of Transylvania – charming though most of them may be – from trying to pitch camp at Marble Arch”. British ministers have even considered launching a negative publicity campaign in Bulgaria and Romania to dissuade migrants, highlighting the dreary weather and lack of job opportunities in Britain.

  • Migracje ludności jako wartość cywilizacyjna

    The study indicates that migratory movements are one of the fundamental values of life and culture of civilization. The heritage of the past is rich, revealing their scale, consequences, opportunities and barriers to development. Since the end of the 18th century, migrations have been deeply involved in the political life of each country and international environment. A new cultural dimension is associated in fact with the global formation of civil society, in the process of the simultaneously occurring unification and diversification of cultural life. The image of the migration life clearly involves the presence of Poland and Polish people both in terms of migrants and immigrants.

  • Economic freedom and migration from Ukraine : The case of well-educated youth

    Economic Freedom and Migration from Ukraine: the Case of Well-Educated Youth. Th is paper is based on the idea that there is a special pattern in migration of the well-educated youth from Ukraine connected with the diff erence in levels of economic freedom that include higher salary and welfare. Th e survey was conducted in order to obtain data regarding infl uence of the level of economic freedom on the decision to leave and choice of the target country. Th e analysis of the survey results was carried out in terms of economic freedom and its importance to the respondents, that has brought authors to the conclusion that economic freedom is indeed important factor for educated youth when the decision to leave is made.

  • Borders, Inequalities and Global Generations : A Preliminary Study on the use of Ulrich Beck’s Concepts in the Polish Context

    The article outlines Beck’s major concepts in order to show some theoretical frameworks for the study on migration, young people and possible conflict-laden interactions between them. The example of Poland seems to be particularly relevant to the discussion about the validity of Beck’s contribution to the understanding of divisions, contradictions, and desires of the global generation. Although Poland is not perceived as a country of immigration, many young people declare their greater orientation to migration. However, many young people also appear very reluctant to accept immigration to Poland. The article attempts to consider some explanations for this reluctance. The study is descriptive and designed to explore new perspectives. The main goal of the article is to start discussion about generational interconnectedness in times of rapid migration and set up a research agenda for work on Polish young people in a described framework.

  • POLES IN GREAT BRITAIN AFTER 2004 . AN ATTEMPT AT ANALYSIS OF SELECTED SECURITY ASPECTS

    The multitude of defining the concept of security is related to the fact that representatives of various fields of science describe and perceive this phenomenon from the point of view of terminology, own knowledge, as well as from the scope of their discipline. For many security is a belief that you are out of the reach of any threat. Based on the Copenhagen school theory, the essence of the objective and subjective understanding of security was emphasized. Against this background, the movement of people was analyzed as a security issue. Poles living in Great Britain are more often in contact with this issue than in their country of origin. The scale of threats is extremely different. For Poles migrating to the UK, the most dangerous threats appear to be in the social sphere. The aim of the article is to analyze the phenomenon of Polish migration to Great Britain after 2004. Additionally, the process of describing security and its transition from the sphere of theory to practice was attempted. Although in the open public space, on city streets, parks and squares, there are personal threats related to crimes, as well as to social threats – attacks and assaults caused by frustrated and aggressive groups or individuals, Poles feel safe. Despite knowing about terrorism or manifestations of social or cultural phobias, Poles migrate to Great Britain. In addition, the article attempts to prove that the technological extension of public space leads to a sense of greater security.

  • THE MIGRATION ISSUE IN POLISH FOREIGN POLICY UNDER THE MIGRATION CRISIS IN EUROPE

    The aim of this article is to analyze Polish foreign policy, its nature and instruments of implementation under the migration crisis. The migration issue is in this case the determinant of foreign policy, which verified and actuated Polish external policies in the bilateral relations, as well as in the framework of multilateral cooperation. The migration issue has also become a determinant of European policy of Poland prejudging the extent and mechanisms of Polish involvement in the solution of the migration crisis in European institutions. It should be noted that a different approach to EU policies and its activities to prevent and mitigate the effects of the influx of people on its territory is reflected in the relations between Member States, as exemplified by the Polish-German relations. The migration issue is also reflected in the activities of the Visegrad Group. Fear of the consequences of mass migration into the EU and, above all, opposition to the obligation to accept refugees based on the quota system proposed by the European Commission intensified cooperation within the Visegrad Group. From the Polish foreign policy perspective, the Visegrad Group is seen as an important entity influencing its effects.

  • THE POSITION OF EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT ON THE MIGRANT CRISIS IN EUROPE

    The migrant crisis in Europe, which reached its zenith in 2015, made EU politicians realize the urgent need for a more effective migration policy that would rely more on supranational cooperation. Absence of this policy triggers migrant influx to Europe, in particular of unqualified labour force, and enhances illegal migration from which organized criminal groups profit enormously. Moreover, uncontrolled migration processes give rise to a number of social, economic, political and cultural problems all across the EU, and thus nurture the Eurosceptic mood. This leads to societal negation of the European integration project and provides fertile soil to the spread of radicalism and xenophobia. The aim of the study is to capture the position of European Parliament on recent migrant crisis. The Parliament, a democratically legitimate body, which claims the right to represent European societies, advocates adoption of systemic EU approach to migration which should be based on the respect of human rights and creation of legal migration pathways for refugees and workers needed by Europe. The solution of the present migrant crisis is sought by the EP in moving towards a common, comprehensive European immigration policy and enhanced solidarity of EU member states in response to increased influx of refugees from conflict zones.

  • Kwestia migracji w polityce współczesnej Austrii

    Austria jest krajem, który w swej polityce kieruje się (w przeszłości i obecnie) pragmatyzmem, tj. interesem narodowym, będącym wyznacznikiem tego, co jest akceptowalne, a co nie. Interes narodowy jest istotnym faktorem w ramach uprawianej tam polityki migracyjnej i nie ma znaczenia czy chodzi o imigrantów ekonomicznych, czy o uchodźców. Od lat 60. XX w. Austria jest postrzegana jako miejsce, w którym można znaleźć lepsze życia. To dlatego przybywali tam licznie gastarbeiterzy z Jugosławii i Turcji. Politycy austriaccy podejmowali działania mające na celu kontrolowanie napływu robotników cudzoziemskich – preferowano tych przydatnych dla miejscowej gospodarki, a jednocześnie niestanowiących zagrożenia dla rodzimej siły roboczej. Z podobną sytuacją mamy do czynienia w czasach obecnych. Imigranci mają nie tylko ekonomiczne, lecz także polityczne znaczenie. Partie lewicowe postrzegają w nich okazję do wzmocnienia swych wpływów. Z szeregów imigranckich wywodzą się bowiem w większości ich wyborcy. Partie prawicowe starają się zaś pozyskać przychylną opinię tej części elektoratu, która nie godzi się na przyjmowanie większej ilości przybyszów. Specyficznym aspektem austriackiego pragmatyzmu jest wypowiadanie krytycznych opinii wobec państw Europy Środkowej i Wschodniej, które nie wspierają niemieckiej willkommenskultur. Austria, która w przeszłości była postrzegana jako most łączący Wschód z Zachodem, straciła w oczach krytykowanych krajów, w tym Polski.

  • Global Generation(s) and Higher Education: Some Reflections on the Use of Ulrich Beck’s Concepts in the Polish Context

    At the beginning of 21st century, we are witnessing a global transformation of the generational dynamics that exacerbate intra-generational tensions across ethnic lines. Amid crises, global challenges and deep-seated insecurity are interwoven with the turmoil of the present. With the instability of an increasingly complex world, young people are highly exposed to the forces of global risks. All young people are affected, but not all young people equally. Therefore, global generations break down into different fractions in a conflictual relationship with each other. This article outlines Beck’s major concepts in order to show some theoretical frameworks for the study on global generations. The focus is on the role of the university that should play in the contemporary world. The example of Poland seems to be particularly relevant to the discussion about the validity of Beck’s contribution to understanding of divisions, contradictions, and desires of the global generations. Many young Poles appear to be open for migratory experiences, but at the same time, they are reluctant to accept immigration to Poland. The article attempts to explore some contexts of mixed feelings about migration such as individuality and insecurity, media and the culture of catastrophe, education and neoliberal agenda. Nevertheless, the main goal of the article is to reconsider the role of education in times of rapid migration and generational interconnectedness.

  • Papież Franciszek wobec problemu uchodźstwa w latach 2014–2018

    The aim of the article is to analyze the discourse of Pope Francis on the issue of migrations and checking whether it changed after the so‒called ‘migration crisis’ from 2015. The period of time taken into considerations starts from 2014, i.e. one year after Jorge Bergoglio became the Pope, and ends in the current 2018. The analyzed data include annual papal proclamations delivered at ‘International Migrants Day’. Methods applied in the study are content analysis and Berelson’s method.

  • Динамика численности этнических украинцев в УССР: на основе итогов Всесоюзных переписей населения 1959 г., 1970 г. и 1979 г.

    Динамика численности этнических украинцев в УССР: на основе итогов Всесоюзных переписей населения 1959 г., 1970 г. и 1979 г.

    В статье исследованы Всесоюзные переписи населения 1959 г., 1970 г., 1979 г. как основной источник для комплексного изучения динамики численности и территориального размещения украинцев в разных регионах УССР в течение 1960-х – 1970-х гг.; охарактеризовано национальную политику советской власти, которая руководствовалась приоритетом государственного общенационального единства всего «советского народа» и презирала ценность этнической нации. Выяснено, что Украина была одним из центров аккумулирования эмиграционных потоков в Советском Союзе, из-за чего многонациональное общество УССР, основу которого составляли украинцы, постепенно превращалось в двунациональное, где украинское большинство сосуществовало рядом с непрерывно растущим русским меньшинством. Такие переселения проводились прежде всего по политическим соображениям и были направлены на то, чтобы коренной народ терял свои национальные особенности – язык, культуру и тому подобное.

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