militant democracy

  • Conceptualizing the Theoretical Category of Neo-militant Democracy: The Case of Hungary

    Author: Joanna Rak
    E-mail: joanna.rak@amu.edu.pl
    Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0505-3684
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 61-70
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020204
    PDF: ppsy/49-2/ppsy2020204.pdf

    The article aims to formulate a theoretical category of neo-militant democracy that applies to study the nature and dynamics of democratic regimes after the 2008 economic crisis. It conducts an empirical test to verify the analytical effectiveness of the redeveloped category. The test takes a form of the case study of the Hungarian political system. Apart from a verification-objective, the research aims to identify and account for the dynamics of the Hungarian regime in terms of the neo-militant democracy principle. The qualitative method of source analysis serves to collect data on the processes of becoming neo-militant democracy. The selection of sources is deliberate and oriented on finding information about the implementation of neo-militant democracy measures in Hungary (2008-2019). The technique of qualitative content analysis applies to identify the nature of these processes. The theoretical tool is the category of neo-militant democracy, which simultaneously undergoes the empirical test. The main argument is that the process of becoming neo-militant democracy took a traditional form since the Hungarian neo-militant democracy principle drew on the traditional means introduced by Loewenstein rather than innovations advanced by the current research

  • Possibility of Implementing the Concept of the Intermarium in the Context of Militant Democracy in Poland During and After the Coronavirus Pandemic

    Author: Kamila Rezmer-Płotka
    E-mail: kamila.rezmer@onet.pl
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1458-5076
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 96-110
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020306
    PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020306.pdf

    Intermarium is one of the most important Polish geopolitical concepts. This article considers it within the category of militant democracy. It allows to explore the process of militant democracy, that is, introducing restrictions by legal means. Most restrictions have recently been introduced due to a coronavirus pandemic. Therefore, the article undertakes to examine the potential for implementation of the concept of the Intermarium during the pandemic and shortly after its end. The study uses a qualitative analysis of sources. Indicators relevant to the study of the process of militant democracy were distinguished based on the body of literature. Results: The traditional concept of the Intermarium erodes due to natural causes. Currently, Poland is more inclined to the concept of the Three Seas. In addition, in the face of the analysis that was carried out, it seems that in a pandemic situation we are observing the end of the paradigm of liberal democracy in this case.

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