monetary policy

  • Independence of Central Bank as a Basis for Institutional Politics of Monetary Policy

    Author: Ireneusz Kraś
    Institution: Jan Długosz Academy of Częstochowa (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2012
    Source: Show
    Pages: 444-460
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppsy/41/ppsy2012022.pdf

    The course of economic processes of economy is regulated by its products and production factors in which supply and demand are equalized. The most important role is given to money as a measurement of value (ensuring valuation), means of payment (allowing the settling the payments) as well as a means of hoarding (allowing savings). Primarily the market economy is a monetary economy. Money is used for buying and selling, for granting loans, accumulating savings. Every functional entity of the market such as enterprises, households are taking part in these processes. An important role of these processes is taken by the purchasing power of money, which has an eff ect on those participating in economy and social life. If the value of the money is constant it brings safety in life not only from the economic but also the social point of view. We can not agree more than to say that stable currency is of great social value. The central bank takes a major role to a guard keeping the currency at a stable level. Proper functioning of the central bank is strictly connected with its independence. It allows the monetary policy to be conducted properly in a country.

  • The Stock Market Channel in the Monetary Policy Transmission Process

    Author: Magdalena Redo
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 224-235
    DOI Address:
    PDF: apsp/59/apsp5914.pdf

    The growing number of empirical studies proves the existence of the negative relations between short-term interest rates and the stock prices. It points to permeability of the stock market channel in the monetary policy transmission process; it also proves the strength of the central bank instrument which makes it possible to react to disadvantageous turn of events on financial markets (by providing liquidity, easier access to credit or restoring investors’ trust), or to excessive enthusiasm of investors. This confirms the importance of monetary policy in economic policy and is an argument for more frequent use of monetary tools rather than fiscal tools to affect economy. It mainly corresponds to countries with high and/or growing – decade after decade – public debt, as well as with strong impact of the public finance sector on GDP which limits possibilities and development perspective of respective economies as well as lowers flexibility of fiscal policy and its feature of supporting economic processes that is needed not only in the context of shocks. It would be advised to return to actions that were observed before the financial crisis of 2008 in terms of integrating capital markets in Europe and to intensify them – not only due to obvious advantages of improved effectiveness and attractiveness of the European financial market, but also due to expected strengthening of the stock market channel in the monetary transmission policy process as well as the increased effect of monetary policy on economic processes and their effectiveness.

  • Optimal Monetary Policy with a Cost Channel

    Author: Magdalena Redo
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 131–144
    DOI Address:
    PDF: apsp/52/apsp5207.pdf

    More and more research confirms the influence of monetary policy over supply through the costs level (especially in reference to the working capital costs) and over the marginal costs of a given enterprise which influences their pricing policy and manufacturing decisions. Thus, it has become a necessity in the monetary policy’s effectiveness to take into account cost channels of transmitting monetary policy into economy, along with identification of factors determining its effectiveness. It may point out to the stronger reaction of the central bank in order to repress costly inflationary pressure; it may as well point out to a lower interest increase in order to not increase inflation expectations. It depends on the specificity of a given economy – to be precise, the role of a cost channel and market expectations, as well as the strength of an interest rate channel. The central bank should analyze the effects of its actions in order to neutralize negative consequences and increase its effectiveness. Thus, when it comes to the cost channel, it comes as more effective for the central bank to focus on the inflation goal and to base the monetary policy on the aim of achieving this goal. To strengthen the effectiveness and credibility, it is necessary to create a realistic strategy should economical crisis occur.


    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 34-56
    DOI Address:
    PDF: hso/8/hso803.pdf

    The paper seeks to determine the origin of Emma, whose name was mentioned on coins bearing an inscription ENMA REGINA, and of denarius episcopi, minted by an unnamed bishop. The author concurs with the hypothesis of the French roots of Emma and presents the results of his reading of the inscription on the episcopal coin.

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