parlamentaryzm zracjonalizowany

  • The Specificity of Presidential Systems of Government in Francophone African Countries

    The paper deals with distinguishing features of presidential systems of government adopted in the current or former constitutions of some Francophone African countries, such as Benin, Djibouti, Ivory Coast or the Republic of Congo. Particular attention has been devoted to the internal structure of the executive branch of government (the existence of the prime minister as a separate body) as well as to the reception of diverse mechanisms of rationalised parliamentarianism created previously in the constitution of the French Fifth Republic. The dynamics of constitutional changes leading to the adoption of presidentialism in place of semi-presidentialism and vice versa in such countries as Niger or Senegal has also been taken into account. In the light of the findings, it can be stated that the specific properties of presidentialism in Francophone Africa prove its apparent distinctness from certain typical assumptions of this model.

  • Akty o mocy ustawy w polskim porządku konstytucyjnym. Tradycja a współczesność

    The issue of the place and role of the acts under the Act in order political system is important in the study of constitutional law, both in terms of the structure of the system of sources of law and system of government. The question of the issue by the acts of the executive authorities of universally binding law of the power of the law is in fact closely linked to the principle of separation of powers, namely the formula rationalization of law-making in a system of parliamentary government. Evidence of this act, that the greatest development of this type of legislation came in the first half of the twentieth century, acting in response to a profound crisis of parliamentarism functional in Europe. Acts under the Act are also a permanent place in the Polish political tradition. Introduced for the first time under the so-called novel in August of 1926, in various forms and with varying intensity continuously operate in the Polish system of sources of law until 1989. She received them the Small Constitution of 1992, as amended regulations with the force of law, issued by the Council of Ministers on the basis of parliamentary authority. The Constitution of 2 April 1997 reduced the role and importance of regulations with the force of law, reducing the possibility of their issuance by the President only for exceptional circumstances relating to the imposition of martial law and the inability to act of the Sejm. Because of the perceived need to rationalize more and more Polish law-making, it is appropriate to consider the possibility of widening the scope of application of the Regulations with the force of law in the Polish constitutional order, by granting the government the power to issue them under parliamentary authority, so that the formula adjusted relative to solutions that She received Small Constitution of 1992.

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