prawo konstytucyjne

  • Relacje między Zasadami Techniki Prawodawczej a Zasadami Poprawnej Legislacji w procesie stanowienia prawa

    Meaning of the principles of legislative techniques (PLT) and the principles of proper legislation (PPL) should be regarded as a key to the process of lawmaking. These rules are often a guarantee for the protection of human rights. The principles of good legislation are inferred by the Constitutional Court of Art. 2 of the Polish Constitution (the democratic rule of law). The principles of legislative techniques are included in the Annex to the Regulation of the Prime Minister Council of Ministers dated on 20 June 2002 on the principles of legislative technique. The paper presents a characteristics of both disciplines taking into account their specificity and historical background. It was also shown that by joint application of PPL and PLT and their inseparable correlation legislator may establish acts that will guarantee the protection of human rights and will protect the interests of the State. The Author also identified benefits which derive form joint application of both sets of legislative rules and principles.

  • Prawa człowieka i obywatela jako moralny kierunkowskaz ustrojowy Republiki Federalnej Niemiec

    The end of Nazism lawlessness, proved – beyond reasonable doubt – that values which are sustainable and unbreakable exists. These values are getting older – as everything in this world, but does not become outdated. As a starting point shall be taken joint and individual experiences from National-Socialists period, which cannot be forgotten, especially from perspective of historical context: the state and society were impact by ideological experiment. The experiment had a common meaning – individuals disregard and cult of masses. Never individualism did not mean so few. And never the freedom of individual was so deficit commodity. When thinking deeper on this subject, it is – without any doubts, possible to assumed, that these past experiences had strong and thorough influence on authors of German constitution from 1949. It shall be emphasized that the opening word of the German Basic Law is: „The human dignity is irrebuttable”. From the point of legal system, it is striking, because in typical (and – commonly used in other democratic systems) opening constitutional provisions, we can read, to whom the power in the state is dedicated, or what is the legal form of state.

  • Polskie unormowania konstytucyjne względem zasady pomocniczości i jej rozwinięcie w ustawach zwykłych

    This paper is an attempt to show regulations on the principle of subsidiarity, enclosed in Polish Constitution and other legal acts. Polish legislation is familiar with the concept of subsidiarity, it is included in the preamble of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. This provision was intended to emphasize its importance for the implementation of civil rights. It was considered that subsidiarity is important for strengthening the powers of citizens and communities they create. It is present to protect their rights, as well as any action taken by manifestations of civic activity in associations. This imposes an obligation on the legislature for an appropriate division of roles, in carrying out tasks of the local public administration. Applying the method of the institutional and legal analysis, demonstrated the presence and development of subsidiarity in the legislation. Analyzed materials also show the gradual, yet slow development of the principle of subsidiarity in Polish legislation. Its basis can be found in the constitutional law, which is the determinant of the direction of its development. The Constitutional Tribunal is also affecting subsidiarity by its decisions. The first part is a review of the principle of subsidiarity in Polish Constitution. It also expresses the impact of principle on the Republic of Poland. The second part concerns the principle of subsidiarity in the ordinary law. It shows how the principle is being developed since the late 80’s. The last part is an attempt to reveal the implementation of subsidiarity in activities of local governments. It focuses on how subsidiarity can provide the right to operate freely and retain autonomy of actions.

  • Wstęp do Konstytucji Węgier ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem „Narodowego wyznania wiary”

    Ustawa Zasadnicza Węgier weszła w życie 1 stycznia 2012 r. Ustawa Zasadnicza w warstwie aksjologicznej jest konstytucją konserwatywną, zawierającą również elementy chrześcijańskie, która teraz po raz pierwszy zawiera Narodowe wyznanie wiary (kredo). Pierwsza z sześciu części Ustawy Zasadniczej nosi tytuł Narodowe wyznanie wiary, zawarte w niej przepisy można dosłownie uznać za kredo, samostanowienie (samookreślenie) państwa. W stosunku do poprzedniej konstytucji, obecna zawiera wiele nowatorskich rozwiązań, które należy ocenić pozytywnie.

  • Algorytmy priorytezujące w świetle zasady wolnych wyborów

    The principle of free elections allows for broad protection of imponderables related to the electoral process. Its scope covers activities ranging from the possibility of reading electoral information, up to the voting process itself. Such a broad approach to this principle of electoral law, which in fact is currently not expressed expressis verbis in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, allows protection of the entire voting process. This, in turn, seems crucial in the field of reference to modern technologies. These are undoubtedly easier for us to live, however, improperly used, they can interfere with democratic processes. This article is an attempt to answer a momentous practical question: how can the content optimization algorithms used in search engines and social networks influence freedom of choice, and whether inappropriate use of these algorithms may violate the law and to what extent can it influence democratic processes? In my opinion, taking up this research topic will help to secure the interests of democratic states, as well as looking at the principle of “free elections” in a slightly different context than before.

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