Генеральний інспекторат Армії УНР: створення, інституалізація, специфіка функціонування (1920–1921 рр.)

Author: Андрій Руккас
Institution: Київський національний університет імені Тараса Шевченка [Narodowy Uniwersytet Kijowski im. Tarasa Szewczenki]
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2086-3463
Author: Ігор Срібняк
Institution: Київський університет імені Бориса Грінченка [Uniwersytet Kijowski im. Borysa Grinczenki]
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9750-4958
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 49-65
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/sdhw.2023.03
PDF: sdhw/23/sdhw2303.pdf

General Inspectorate of the UPR Army: Creation, institutionalisation, specifics of functioning (1920–1921)

The article reconstructs the process of creation and specifics of the activities of the Inspectorate (General Inspectorate) of the Army of the Ukrainian People’s Republic in 1920–1921, which became one of the important steps on the way to creating the institutional foundations of the Armed Forces of Ukraine in the modern era and increasing the level of combat readiness of its units. In September 1921, the commander of the 3rd Iron Rifle Division, colonel-general Oleksandr Udovychenko, was appointed to the position of inspector general of the UNR Troops, who was well acquainted with all the difficulties that the Ukrainian military had to face. Based on the results of his inspections of the camps, O. Udovychenko prepared reports in which he highlighted the actual condition of the internees (combat conditions of the units, living conditions, provision of clothing and food, moral and psychological condition and mood of the soldiers, the intensity of cultural and educational work in their environment, etc.). These reports were addressed to the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Ukrainian People’s Republic and the Minister of War, allowing them to understand the real situation in the internment camps, and accordingly take the necessary measures to normalize it. During the entire period of internment, the

Niemieckie reparacje wojenne za II wojnę światową (polskie kontrowersje)

Author: Lech Wyszczelski
Institution: profesor emerytowany Akademii Obrony Narodowej w Warszawie i Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczo-Humanistycznego w Siedlcach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2063-4281
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 47-60
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023204
PDF: cpls/6/cpls604.pdf

German war reparations for World War II (Polish controversy)

German war reparations were imposed arbitrarily by the victorious powers, because no peace conference was convened. They were estimated at $20 million at the 1938 exchange rate, half of which went to the USSR (the Polish People’s Republic was to receive 15% of its pool). In addition, they were imported by the great powers themselves. Western powers abandoned their importation in the late 1940s, and the USSR, including the Polish People’s Republic, abandoned it in 1953. Both the Federal Republic of Germany and the four superpowers signed the so-called the two plus four agreement in 1990 considered the end of World War II. Poland received only part of the reparations due to it as part of Russian reparations. And so far, financial compensation from the Federal Republic of Germany has not satisfied her. During the PiS government, President Jarosław Kaczyński considered demands for such reparations to be a political issue aimed at weakening the international position of Germany, including the EU, and for his own election campaigns.

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