relations

  • Specyfika guanxi – pozytywny czy negatywny kapitał społeczny?

    The specificity of guanxi – positive or negative social capital?

    The text presents the problem of a Chinese-specific phenomenon known as guanxi. Their features and their connection with Confucianism were discussed. They emphasized their permanence and continuous presence in Chinese society, emphasizing their evolution after China adopted the principles of market economy. Also tried to look at guanxi in terms of social capital, showing elements connecting both phenomena. It has been noted that some researchers have a tendency to perceive guanxi in terms of negative social capital. This approach was considered as unauthorized as a result of Western ethnocentrism and pointed to the need to respect the cultural distinctiveness of the East and West. It has also been pointed out, that the interest in China and the role that guanxi play, especially in the sphere of economy, may be due to fears of Chinese domination, as well as the lack of understanding by the West that effective modernization based on other patterns is possible than those preferred in the Euro-Atlantic cultural circle.

  • Educational Space of a Learner with Disability in the Context of Infrahumanization of “Outgroups”

    The study is aimed at presenting the educational space of a disabled learner within the category of infrahumanization – social categorizing into “ingroups” and “outgroups”. The presented issues comprise educational space, three functioning forms of education, the phenomenon of infrahumanization and the common group identity. Disabled learners’ functioning within a class is presented in: mainstream school (where the dominating group consists of learners without disabilities), integrated school (where categorization of learners is shaped in the way offering more chances to the disabled), and special school (a segregation-based form). Two dimensions of the discussed phenomenon of infrahumanization are indicated – heterogeneousness, which enhances attitudes of acceptance and understanding within a class group (micro-dimension) and its more serious social consequences (macro-dimension).

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