religion

  • Fundamentalism in the Light of Selected Psychological Concepts

    Author: Anna Zasuń
    E-mail: a.zasun@ajd.czest.pl
    Institution: University of Jan Długosz in Częstochowa (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 257-271
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016020
    PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016020.pdf

    The aim of the article is to present the psychological roots of fundamentalism, which can be found in each type of the phenomenon, and also an attempt to show fundamentalism, as the configuration of certain personality traits. As the basis for such an interpretation of fundamentalism, serve the psychological approach, which relate to the personality, cognitive style, refer to the prejudices, as well as to the concept of authoritarian personality and its constitutive characteristics. Article raised the question of so–called “fundamentalist personality” on the basis of diversity of manifestations of this phenomenon and its correlation with the concepts of authoritarianism and dogmatism. Author also addresses psychological category of attitude, which is the starting point in the discussion of the phenomena, such as fundamentalism or nationalism. In the background of considerations is an attempt to organize knowledge on fundamentalism, taking into account the historical roots of the phenomenon, and also, as a complementary reflection, a legitimacy of identifying fundamentalism with terrorism. 

  • The Regulatory Function of Religion in Social Control. Enlightenment Concepts

    Author: Ryszard Stefański
    Institution: Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 207-212
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013013
    PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013013.pdf

    Andrzej Wierciński (1930–2003) wrote that the period Enlightenment (he did not use the term, however) saw the separation of philosophy and religion as a consequence of the development of empirical sciences, mathematics and logic: The rationalised philosophical world-model was advanced to the rank of an ICS [Ideological Control Subsystem]. Its institutional carriers were bourgeois groups and political parties which caused the first breakdown in the feudal system during the French and American Revolution. Mechanicism was therefore to replace animism as a principal generator of the world-view. Wierciński’s approach does not contradict the perspective generally accepted by historians. Probably never before had the fight against revealed religions, including Roman Catholicism, been so intense. The best example is the attitude of Enlightenment authors towards Catholicism and church institutions.

  • Human rights in the teachings and practices of Benedict XVI

    Author: Małgorzata Zamojska
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2011
    Source: Show
    Pages: 238-252
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2011013
    PDF: ppsy/40/ppsy2011013.pdf

    Joseph Ratzinger, chosen for the See of Peter 19 April 2005, after three years of papal ministry, may be, in my opinion, considered a worthy continuator of John Paul’s II mission, the latter described as the Human Rights Pope due to his activities in the field. The main goal of this essay is to analyze Benedict XVI’s most characteristic practices and texts, which directly refer to the issue of human rights, especially in the context of respect for and protection of human rights. The next aim is to show the contexts in which John Paul II’s great friend invokes or refers to the legacy of his eminent predecessor and to demonstrate the differences between John Paul II and Benedict XVI’s perception of the significance of human rights in the lives of contemporary societies.

  • Religion and Democracy: Points of Agreement, Points of Controversy

    Author: Maria Marczewska–Rytko
    Year of publication: 2009
    Source: Show
    Pages: 90-103
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009007
    PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy2009007.pdf

    Introductorily, it should be observed that the discussed problem’s significance is increasingly pressing as our interest drifts towards societies dominated by great, universalizing religions Islam being only one of them. From the above, a question arises of whether the notions of religion and democracy, as mentioned in the title, are reconcilable within a single order in the first place. In his deliberations, Bohdan Chwedeńczyk inclines to the view that three types of relations may be distinguished in this respect: religion favours democracy; is indifferent to democracy; or is harmful to democracy. The discussion of the above opinion has, respectively, developed threefold. In one point of view, religion is by nature contradictory to the democratic order, it is in a sense its direct opposite. In other words, we face a choice of opting either for religion or democracy. Supporters of an alternative viewpoint claim that in the long run, a democratic system is not viable without the basis of notions such as religion, and therefore religion does play a vital part in the social order. It serves members of the public by satisfying those of their needs that do not belong to the scope of duties performed by the state and its institutions. Finally, the third approach basically acknowledges the fact that no definitive claims can be made as to the possibility of agreement between religion and democracy. I must admit that the latter is closest to my personal stance in this respect. Naturally, through careful selection of examples, arguments to support the first or the second of the mentioned opinions can be easily produced. There have been numerous examples of academic and journalistic articles advocating one of the clear-cut standpoints, which seem not to leave much room for discussion. However, the issue becomes far more multifarious when taking into account the complexity of religious and political issues analysed in both theoretical and practical perspective.

  • Religious Fundamentalism: Theorethical Problems

    Author: Maria Marczewska–Rytko
    Institution: Marie Curie-Skłodowska University of Lublin (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2007
    Source: Show
    Pages: 215-223
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2007014
    PDF: ppsy/36/ppsy2007014.pdf

    The following article will attempt to present characteristics of religious fundamentalism. The task requires addressing terminological and methodological issues, which seem to constitute the weakest link in the overall research of the phenomenon. Even a cursory analysis of the available data points to the fact, that comparative studies are in minority, while an overwhelming majority of all research focuses on particular instances of fundamentalism, most commonly within one speci€c religion. ree preliminary observations can be made. Firstly, usually the case is that of either methodological maximalism or minimalism. The work edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby Fundamentalisms Observed, signi€cant as it was, can serve as a valid example of maximalist approach. The phenomenon discussed therein is viewed in the broad perspective, thus it becomes almost synonymous to traditionalism, nationalism, orthodoxy or communalism.

  • Religious and Political Ritualism

    Author: Maria Marczewska–Rytko
    Institution: Marie Curie-Skłodowska University of Lublin (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2004
    Source: Show
    Pages: 29-42
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2004003

  • Religious Communities as Interest Groups

    Author: Maria Marczewska–Rytko
    Year of publication: 2003
    Source: Show
    Pages: 143-162
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2003011

  • Voegelinowska koncepcja symboli politycznych. Teoria i zastosowania

    Author: Michał Kuź
    Institution: Uczelnia Łazarskiego
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 99–112
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2016.51.06
    PDF: apsp/51/apsp5106.pdf

    Poniższy artykuł stanowi refleksję nad zastosowaniem teoretycznej kategorii symboli politycznych w ujęciu Erica Voegelina do badań politologicznych oraz praktycznych problemów współczesnego prawa i polityki. Oryginalny wkład badawczy tego tekstu stanowi przy tym prześledzenie rozwoju koncepcji symboli politycznych u Voegelina i skupienie się na wczesnych, rzadko opisywanych tekstach tegoż autora. Konkluzją jest obserwacja, iż voegelinowska kategoria symboli politycznych to narzędzie znacznie powiększające nasze możliwości poznawcze i otwierające nowe pola dialogu społecznego. Kategoria ta przezwycięża bowiem nieprzystający już w pełni do współczesnej polityki podział na religie i ideologie, a równocześnie unika problemów charakterystycznych dla myśli politycznej Carla Schmitta i pozwala na bardziej szczegółową analizę niż upraszczające huntingtonowskie pojęcie cywilizacji.

  • Russia’s Strategic Culture: Prisoner of Imperial History?

    Author: Anna Antczak
    Institution: University of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2342-1521
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 223-242
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.60.13
    PDF: apsp/60/apsp6013.pdf

    The article aims at identifying key elements of Russia’s strategic culture and drivers for its change. It starts with a short theoretical overview of the strategic culture concept and different approaches within various theoretical frameworks (liberal, constructive, and post-modern). It focuses on most important determinants of Russian strategic culture, namely history, ideology, geopolitics, systemic issues, and religion. It examines the extent to which Russian policy reflects these determinants.

  • Muzułmanie we Francji – aspekty religijne i organizacyjne

    Author: Stanisław Musiał
    Institution: Akademia Marynarki Wojennej w Gdyni
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 53-67
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2015.46.04
    PDF: apsp/46/apsp4604.pdf

    MUSLIMS IN FRANCE IN TERMS OF RELIGIOUS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BACKGROUNDS

    At the turn of the twentieth and twenty-first century, the problem of the Muslim minority in Europe became a significant problem in religious, social and political terms. In this publication, we present the characteristics of the presence of Muslims in France only in terms of religious and organizational backgrounds. By analyzing the first aspect, the importance of Islam as the second religion in terms of the number of believers in France is shown. The second aspect describes the characteristics of some important Muslim organizations in France.

  • Mary Wollstonecraft and the Beginnings of Pro-animal Education

    Author: Barbara Grabowska
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 66-78
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.05
    PDF: kie/112/kie11205.pdf

    Amidst the many topics important for the shaping of character of adolescents in Original Stories, Mary Wollstonecraft places such important issues as our attitude towards animals. She wants to convince the readers that not only should we not hurt animals but also offer them our aid. The education that sensitises us to the fate of animals is an important element of moral education. Being kind for the beings of other species is what makes us better, more compassionate. And reversely being cruel towards animals turns us into brutes capable of hurting also people. Tormenting animals is moreover inconsistent with God’s will and leads to the infliction of completely unnecessary and senseless suffering. Which is why it deserves severe condemnation.

  • Przekonania studentów pedagogiki w pryzmaciedominującej formacji światopoglądowej

    Author: Anna Odrowąż-Coates
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 225-239
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2017.02.14
    PDF: em/7/em714.pdf

    Artykuł zawiera teoretyczną analizę procesu socjalizacji, zanurzonego w przekonaniach religijnych, wprowadzającą do przedstawienia wyników badań empirycznych, pochodzących z niewielkiego, pilotażowego studium przypadku studentów Akademii Pedagogiki Specjalnej im. M. Grzegorzewskiej w Warszawie. W badaniu uczestniczyło ponad 250 studentów w grupach 20–30-osobowych na Wydziale Nauk Pedagogicznych, w latach 2014–2016. Studentów poproszono o przygotowanie krótkiej anonimowej notatki zawierającej opis, jak wyobrażają sobie Boga. Studenci mieli również naszkicować „mapę świata”. Powtarzające się odpowiedzi pozwoliły na wyprowadzenie wniosków o dominującym postrzeganiu Boga oraz geograficznej perspektywie eurocentrycznej badanych. Na tej podstawie wyprowadzono wstępne wnioski o procesie socjalizacji, przebiegającej w określonym kontekście religijnym, zastanawiając się, jak kontekst ten oddziałuje na osobiste poglądy o świecie.

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