Science

Change as the Subject of Research in the International Relations Science

Author: Teresa Łoś–Nowak
Institution: University of Wrocław (Poland)
Year of publication: 2008
Source: Show
Pages: 157-183
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2008011
PDF: ppsy/37/ppsy2008011.pdf

Questions asked above are in fact questions about theoretical identity, explanative efficiency and scope of researches in the international relations science, undertaken attempts of answering them decide on particular complexity of the subject of researches, controversies around subjective scope of researches and research methods. Starting from the first serious, inter-paradigmatic debate at the turn of nineteen fiftiies and sixties, conducted by representatives of the realistic trend and new behavioural approach to the last debate from nineteen eighties and nineties, there has been lasting discussion on ontological and epistemological problems of the international relations science. However, it does not discourage researchers from continuing careful and considerable reflection on the condition of discipline and its place in the Pantheon of Science, and for sure it does not discourage them from deepening theoretical discourse on explanative efficiency of various theoretical approaches and their methodological correctness in the process of getting to know, as well as explaining world complexity at the turn of the 20th and 21st century and new gauntlets thrown down by the 21st century.

Media społecznościowe – nowa przestrzeń nauki

Author: Barbara Cyrek
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 45-56
DOI Address: -
PDF: kim/2016_2/kim2016204.pdf

Social Media – the new space of science
Abstract: Internet and modern technologies has introduced permanent changes in many areas of human life. The process of acquiring knowledge does not look today the same as it did few decades ago. The widely understood world of science also has undergone transformations. Virtualization of various aspects of scientific institutions activity, as well as partial migration of scientific researches to the Internet, forced scientists to adapt to the new tools – the new media. The article is an attempt to characterize the presence of science in social media. Social networks are both research field and tool. In this area operate both academic institutions and independent researchers, often young people not affiliated with any university. Social media are both a new tool for institutional communication and also the space of connective and collective work of Internet users, who, under the new social rhetoric of gratuitousness, selflessly promote learning.

Professional Preparation of In-Service Teachers for ‘Prayas’ Program in Science and Impact in Classrooms

Author: Sanjeev Kumar
Institution: H. P. Govt. Middle School, Rugra
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 247-257
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/tner.2018.52.2.19
PDF: tner/201802/tner20180219.pdf

Today most teachers enter teaching by means of a one or two-year undergraduate program in education (B.Ed.). There is provision of in-service training for teachers to make teaching effective in bringing quality to education. Various in-service teacher training programs are organized by District Institutes of Educational Training and State Institute of Educational Management and Training under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan in Himachal Pradesh. Yet, the impact of the training has not been reflected in the classrooms for the last fifteen years. There is not optimum improvement in the academic achievement of students. It is necessary to make teaching enjoyable and flexible through various activities, small projects and ICT in the new era. Creative and experimental activities are very much needed in the teaching of mathematics and science subjects. These activities help in building student confidence and give students more opportunities of learning. ‘PRAYAS’ at the upper-primary level is one of the programs organized by the DIET Solan to professionally prepare in-service teachers for implementing it at the school level. The objective of the study was to study the impact of the ‘PRAYAS’ in-service training program in Science in the educational block Kandaghat block of district Solan of Himachal Pradesh. Three schools were conveniently selected, two Govt. Senior Secondary Schools Chail and Kalhog, and one Govt. High School, Sakori, of the concerned educational block. Data was collected with the use of a semi-structured interview and the observations were recorded. It was found in the study that students made models and activities on the topics of their textbooks under the ‘PRAYAS’ program with eco-friendly materials and waste materials, utilized where suited. In this way, students learnt to use waste materials in everyday life. The models and activities were very low cost and easy to handle and care. The students learnt and understood the concepts easily. The outcomes of the program are discussed in the paper, which will be beneficial for the educational planners and administrators and in-service teachers of the State.

Kapitał naukowy uczniów jako przedmiot analiz teoretycznych i empirycznych

Author: Aleksandra Tłuściak-Deliowska
Institution: Akademia Pedagogiki Specjalnej im. Marii Grzegorzewskiej w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 158-173
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2018.01.10
PDF: kie/119/kie11910.pdf

The article is aimed at presenting the category of science capital as a new category in the field of pedagogical research. Science capital as a construct was proposed in the second decade of the 21st century by the team of Louise Archer from King’s College. This category consists of: (1) scientific forms of cultural capital, (2) behavior and practices related to science, and (3) scientific forms of social capital. The text presents the development of this concept together with a discussion of its elements and their meaning. Scientific capital can be one of the greatest wealth of society, and its use depends on the future development of not only individual units, but also the country and the possibility of high achievements in the fields of science. This is a very current issue, therefore it is important to better understand the shaping of the science capital of young people. The text also reviews the previous empirical studies devoted to the analyzed category. On this basis, it was concluded that scientific capital as an educational variable is still subjected to reconceptualization, requires refinement and further exploration.

Kulturowe cele rozwoju naukowego. Misja uniwersytetu w koncepcji José Ortegi y Gasseta

Author: Jarosław Charchuła
Institution: Akademia Ignatianum w Krakowie
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 231–243
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2018.03.15
PDF: kie/121/kie12115.pdf

The article deals with the important issue of defining the role and place of the university in the contemporary world. Globalization processes force far-reaching changes in social institutions, universities are also not free of them, so it is necessary to re-read the university’s mission in the context of current cultural changes. The inspiration for the conducted analyzes are the assumptions of the social theory developed by one of the most versatile thinkers of the twentieth century – José Ortega y Gasset.
Using the analytical-synthetic method as well as the historical-comparative method, the topicality of the main assumptions formulated by Ortega y Gasset was demonstrated. Among them, the most important place is occupied by the postulates regarding the proper definition of the university mission. The basic thesis is the distinction between science and culture. While modern culture draws heavily on science – mainly technical and natural sciences – it is important to distinguish these two areas, giving decisive priority to culture. From this main assumption comes a number of logical consequences related to the necessary amendments to the university education profile. The general preparation of a humanistic profile, which is not only an introduction to the social reality but a sensitization to higher values, should definitely have greater significance. The education of professionals – specialists in narrow fields – can not be deprived of a broader reference to the cultural context. The University will properly implement its mission if, in addition to professional preparation, it will be able to prepare its graduates to live with others in the society.

Polsko-Czechosłowackie kontakty kulturalne i naukowe 1945–1956

Author: Anna Szczepańska-Dudziak
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 212-235
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso150112
PDF: hso/8/hso812.pdf
License: This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Polish-Czechoslovakian cultural and scholarly relations between 1945 and 1956

Polish-Czechoslovak relations after World War II were marked by territorial and national disputes. Notwithstanding several contentious issues, the cooperation in the field of education, research and education was initiated as early as in 1945. The paper seeks to analyse official contacts of the scholarly and cultural milieus of Poland and Czechoslovakia between 1945 and 1956.

Primary School Students’ Misconceptions about Physical Properties of Water

Author: Marija Bošnjak Stepanović
Institution: University of Novi Sad
Author: Natalija Pešut
Institution: University of Novi Sad
Author: Nataša Branković
Institution: University of Novi Sad
Author: Gordana Kozoderović
Institution: University of Novi Sad
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 127-138
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.19.57.3.10
PDF: tner/201903/tner5710.pdf

Misconceptions are widely present among the students of all ages. The aim of this investigation was to determine the presence of misconceptions in understanding physical properties of water and to identify the most common ones. Quantitative analysis of data from the diagnostic conceptual test was performed on a sample of 243 first and third grade students from three elementary schools in Sombor, Serbia. It was shown that the impact of gender and school affiliation were not proven to be statistically significant factors in test achievements, while the children’s age significantly affects test results, as expected. Synthetic and scientifically correct answers were more frequent among the third grade students, while spontaneous answers were more common among the first graders. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of spontaneous answers implies that misconceptions about physical properties of water are almost identical and deep-rooted among students of both ages. Identifying children’s misconceptions provides a basis for development of accurate conceptual understanding.

Constitutional Freedom of Scientific Research. Contribution to the Discussion

Author: Artur Biłgorajski
Institution: University of Silesia in Katowice
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1389-4520
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 15-34
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.03.01
PDF: ppk/55/ppk5501.pdf

The reform of higher education in the Republic of Poland, which was introduced by the Act of 20 July 2018 Law on higher education and science (Dz.U. 2018, item 1668, as amended; hereinafter: Law on higher education and science), revitalized interests in the freedom of scientific research, optimal ways of its implementation and the role of the state in the support of scientific and research activities. For this reason providing an answer to questions concerning the genesis of regulation of the freedom of scientific research in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2nd April, 1997 (Dz.U. 1997, No. 78, item 483, as amended; hereinafter: the Constitution of the Republic of Poland), specifically in relation to its recognition and position in the Polish constitution, the normative content of the freedom, the beneficiaries and entities obliged to comply with it, appears appropriate. These issues seem to be of particular importance. First of all, the freedom of scientific research shall be one of the crucial elements of a knowledge-based economy, with a significant role of higher educational institutions. Secondly, the proper functioning of universities indicates a broader establishment of human rights. What is more, the hitherto undertaken attempts to define the freedom of scientific research seem not to be incisive enough. The aim of this article, therefore, is to draw attention to the issues and difficulties associated with the freedom of scientific research. The answers given to the aforementioned questions, however, having regard to the limited scope of the publication, cannot be deemed definitive.

Science and Its Role in Modern Society: Epistemological and Social Aspects

Author: Sevda Akhundova
Institution: Baku Slavic University, Azerbaijan
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 32-41
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2020202
PDF: so/18/so1802.pdf

Science and Its Role in Modern Society: Epistemological and Social Aspects

The main form of human cognition - science - today has an increasingly significant and significant impact on the real conditions of our life, in which we must somehow navigate and act. A philosophical vision of the world presupposes fairly definite ideas about what science is, how it is structured and how it develops, what it can do and what gives hope, and what is inaccessible to it. Talking about modern science in its interaction with various spheres of society and the individual, we can distinguish three groups of social functions that it performs. These are, first, cultural-worldview functions, second, the functions of science as a direct productive force and, third, its functions as a social force, due to the fact that scientific knowledge and methods are now being used more and more widely to solve a variety of problems arising in the life of society.

A partire da Hans-Georg Gadamer. La koiné, il ponte e le “due culture”

Author: Lucio Saviani
Institution: Società Filosofica Europea di Ricerca e Alti Studi
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 255-268
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/IW.2014.05.11
PDF: iw/05/iw511.pdf

STARTING FROM HANS-GEORG GADAMER. THE “KOINÉ” AND THE BRIDGE BETWEEN TWO CULTURES

The following contribution starts out going through the pages where Hans Georg Gadamer recalls his early youth and his first university studies in Breslavia. In those pages Gadamer emphasizes more than once a particular “foundational” exigence, the need “to throw a bridge”, to articulate in new terms the dialogue between humanistic tradition and positive sciences. That fundamental exigence “to throw a bridge” of a new relationship with scientific knowledge is one of the essential features of contemporary hermeneutics. Italy was the first country to publish the first translation of Gadamer’s main work, Wahrheit und Methode. And in Italy alone, in last year’s philosophical debate around the hermeneutic koiné finds in the relationship with science (natural sciences, scientific knowledge) as it has been interpreted by hermeneutics so far, and in the exigency to finally reformulate that relationship in less “aesthetical-metaphysical” terms, the place where hermeneutics may recognize its own nihilistic sense: to correspond to the becoming (flowing) of nihilism, that is of modernity, means first of all to mark the distance from the attitudes that hermeneutic philosophers have so far had with regard to the positive sciences.

Man as a subject of cognition in the perspective of pedagogical anthropology - Georgy Shchedrovitsky’s anthropological ideas and searches

Author: Andrei Harbatski
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5098-0949
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 91-102
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2021.02.05
PDF: em/15/em1505.pdf

Aktualnie antropologia pedagogiczna staje się integralną dyscypliną w procesie edukacyjnym. Człowiek jest badany z punktu widzenia historii i kultury, w okresie przemian politycznych i ekonomicznych oraz na każdym poziomie rozwoju społecznego. Współczesny świat jest niezwykle różnorodny i niejednoznaczny. Narastają nierówności społeczne na wszystkich poziomach, rośnie liczba ubogich, pojawiły się nowe światowe problemy migracji i uchodźców. Zobowiązuje to również antropologię pedagogiczną, aby pomagała pedagogom w szybkim i skutecznym rozwiązywaniu palących problemów związanych z edukacją i wychowaniem. Artykuł pokazuje, jak prace naukowe rosyjskiego filozofa Jerzego Szczedrowickiego mogą pomóc współczesnej antropologii pedagogicznej. Podano ogólną ocenę wkładu J. Szczedrowickiego w rozwój antropologii pedagogicznej i zwrócono uwagę na aktualność praktyk naukowych naukowca, które nie straciły aktualnie na znaczeniu i mogą być wykorzystywane zarówno w pedagogice, antropologii pedagogicznej, jak i edukacji międzykulturowej.

Thinking Metacognitively: Metacognitive Skills and Science Performance

Author: Liliana Ciascai
Institution: Babes-Bolyai University
Author: Lavinia Haiduc
Institution: Babes-Bolyai University
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 269-279
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.14.37.3.21
PDF: tner/201403/tner3721.pdf

The presented study aims to identify the relations between metacognitive skills and science performance. Data were collected from 211 Romanian adolescents in the seventh and eighth grades, who completed the Junior Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (the version for 5th- 9th grades). The results indicate that adolescents generally use metacognitive skills when learning science subjects and that some metacognitive skills are associated with better performance in science. Nevertheless, adolescents seem to encounter difficulties in using diagrams and pictures that facilitate the learning process, in evaluating the outcomes of their learning process and in using different learning strategies, in accordance with specific learning situations. Given the importance of metacognitive skills in science performance, we argue that it is essential for teachers to understand how to develop a culture of metacognition in science classrooms.

Ad vocem do artykułu Ryszarda Borowicza Niektóre konsekwencje upowszechnienia wykształcenia wyższego

Author: Przemysław Ziółkowski
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Gospodarki w Bydgoszczy
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 363-372
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2014.04.23
PDF: kie/104/kie10423.pdf

The article is an attempt to take a scientific controversy with one of the many valuable scientific texts written by professor Ryszard Borowicz. The article is an attempt to take a scientific controversy with one of the many valuable scientific texts written by professor Ryszard Borowicz, the eminent sociologist and educator. Posed by Professor Borowicz thesis in the analyzed text on some of the consequences spread of higher education in Poland are inspiring a deep and thorough analysis of the current condition of higher education, with particular emphasis on non-public education. Reference was made to selected parts of the article of Professor Ryszard Borowicz indicating that professor rigorous evaluation can only be some problems recognizing of the higher education in Poland from only one perspective.

Instytucje ombudsmańskie w szkołach wyższych a zasada ich autonomii

Author: Agnieszka Gajda
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1348-174X
Author: Hubert Kotarski
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5370-7099
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 193-204
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2022.04.15
PDF: ppk/68/ppk6815.pdf

Ombudsman Institutions in Universities and the Principle of Their Autonomy

The constitutionally guaranteed principle of autonomy of universities, necessary for the implementation of the mission of the system of higher education and science means, among other things, that the authorities of higher education institutions must be left with the sphere of free decision on matters of internal organization. In view of the problems that occur in the life of academic communities, related, among others, to the implementation of the principle of equality and non-discrimination, the need to provide special protection for persons with disabilities, the authors reflect on the need to create ombudsman institutions in universities, indicating the principles on the basis of which such bodies could be created and operate in such a way that it could be reconciled with the principle of autonomy of universities.

Political Science in Poland within 1989–2009 Applicants, Students and Graduates of Political Studies

Author: Barbara Krauz-Mozer
Author: Piotr Borowiec
Author: Paweł Ścigaj
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 7-21
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2011.30.01
PDF: apsp/30/apsp3001.pdf

The article discusses transformations of political science studies in Poland in the last two decades. The emphasis is put on the changes that took place in higher education system and in political science itself, as well as on the fact that the number of political science higher education institutions is increasing together with the number of candidates for the studies, political science students and graduates. The condition of political science studies is compared to the condition of other, selected faculties. Data presented in this article shows that political science, as a faculty, recently underwent rapid changes. Fast increase in the number of students in the 90’, as well as in the number of educational institutions at the beginning of the XXI century caused political science to become one of the most popular faculties in Poland. However, in the past few years the total number of students has been decreasing, political science students included. This change is significant enough to have an influence on the condition of educational institutions, many of which face difficulties maintain the faculty. What is important, these changes seem to be independent of the tendency observed in higher education in Poland in general, as well as other faculties.

Philosophy and Social Sciences in a Securitological Perspective

Author: Janusz Świniarski
Institution: Military University of Technology (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4694-4600
Published online: 3 January 2023
Final submission: 30 September 2022
Printed issue: June 2023
Source: Show
Page no: 23
Pages: 37-59
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202302
PDF: ppsy/52/ppsy202302.pdf

The inspiration of this text is the belief of the Pythagoreans that the roots and source of complete knowledge is the quadruple expressed in the “arch-four”, also called as tetractys. Hence the hypothesis considered in this paper is: the basis of the philosophy of social sciences is entangled in these four valours, manifested in what is “general and necessary” (scientific) in social life, the first and universal as to the “principles and causes” of this life (theoretically philosophical) and “which can be different in it” (practically philosophical) and “intuitive”. The quadruple appears with different clarity in the history of human thought, which seeks clarification and understanding of the things being cognised, including such a thing as society. It is exposed in the oath of the Pythagoreans, the writings of Plato and Aristotle, who applied these four valours, among other things, in distinguishing the four types of knowledge and learning about the first four causes and principles. This fourfold division seems to be experiencing a renaissance in contemporary theological-cognitive holism and can be treated as an expressive, a “hard core”, and the basis of research not only of social but mainly of global society as a social system. This entanglement of the foundations of the philosophy of the social sciences leads to the suggestion of defining this philosophy as the knowledge of social being composed of “what is general and necessary” (scientific), genetically first, universal (theoretically philosophical) and “being able to be different” (philosophically practical) and intuitive.

Problematic Issues on STEM Education

Author: Iryna Nikitina
Institution: Dnipropetrovsk State University of Internal Affairs
ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3767-7034
Author: Tetyana Ishchenko
Institution: Dnipropetrovsk State University of Internal Affairs
ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3103-978X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 45-50
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ve.2022.02.05
PDF: ve/2/ve205.pdf

Any nation that cares about its future should provide the young generation with a good education. In the 21st century, it is essential to provide them with the skills and knowledge they will need to be successful innovators in the 21st century. The article analyses the main aspects of a STEM learning strategy, which provides students with an interdisciplinary approach to learning. Both the advantageous and disadvantageous issues of this learning approach are revealed in the article. The peculiarities of STEAM learning have also been emphasised. The article notes the specific practices of applying STEM/ STEAM learning in the USA, European Union and Ukraine, specified by educational and professional training programmes. Special emphasis is put on the perspectives of these approaches to education. STEM educational programme focuses on science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The aim is to help better prepare students in these areas of learning and create practical applications for how these lessons apply to the real world. Lately, there has been a growing emphasis on STEAM that is a new educational discipline that engages students not only in the subjects of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math but also the Arts, which is the ability to think, discuss, dispute the problematic issues, to encourage and develop inquiry, curiosity, ability to find solutions to a problem, creativity in the finding of the necessary solutions, both practical skills and appreciation for collaborations. It is opposed to traditional teaching models and aims to bring the disciplines together. Modern STEM education promotes skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, higher-order thinking, and design and behavioural competencies such as perseverance, adaptability, cooperation, organisation, and responsibility.

Nauka wobec wyzwań współczesnej rzeczywistości społeczno-politycznej

Author: Andrzej Chodubski
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 21-29
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip201601
PDF: cip/14/cip1401.pdf

Science in presence of the modern social and political reality challenges. Inaugural lecture delivered on 7th October 2015 at the Gdańsk Academy for Seniors

It is indicated in the lecture that science, as human activity that aims at the objective recognition of a person and his universe, is nowadays perceived as a fundamental power that generates the cultural and civilizational nature of mankind and the world around it. The widening horizon of cultural life has been changing and still changes the scientific and research challenges, including the way, in which science is defined. At present, scientific and technological progress, legal solutions, educational requirements, constantly generate new challenges for science and make it a productive force. The role of social and political sciences that until recently strived to make their ways to achieve the title of science that is a methodologically structured knowledge about human, society and the world, has been changing.At present, the place of social and political reality in the sphere of scientific cognition is perceived as dichotomous – on the one hand, due to the methodology of researches, including attempts to compare them with exact sciences, their scientific separateness is assessed critically; however, on the other hand, taking into account the worked out methods and ways of defining cultural and civilizational reality, explantation of occurrences, processes, humanistic and social values, they are set in the classical science studies, as a whole.

Greek Sixth-graders’ Mental Representations of the Mechanism of Vision

Author: Vasiliki Kokologiannaki
Institution: University of Patras
Author: Konstantinos Ravanis
Institution: University of Patras
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 165-182
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.13.33.3.14
PDF: tner/201303/tner3314.pdf

The presented research concerns 11-year-old Greek students’ mental representations of the mechanisms of vision in conditions of natural and artificial light, as well as the persistence of those representations in terms of the two different states of lighting and the expression form of the provided answers (oral speech; sketches). The study consisted of two phases: test interviews and an interview process, where personal interviews were conducted with 30 participants. The results showed that the 11-year-old pupils employed the majority of the vision schemes that are included in the international bibliography; however, they tended to use the Sea of Light mechanism and a new scheme the researchers called Illumination of the Object. The schemes employed, however, are not consistent, either throughout the different states of lighting, or in the 3-D and 2-D world.

Struggle of languages for domination in science

Author: Zbyszko Melosik
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7802-3152
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 15-27
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2023.04.01
PDF: em/23/em2301.pdf

The article contains a reconstruction of the struggle for linguistic dominance in global science over the centuries. In the beginning, the author presents various contexts of the role that Latin played in science in previous centuries. Then he presents the importance of French and German in this regard and the reasons for their decline. In turn, he analyzes the phenomenon of the dominance of English in contemporary global science; from its genesis through its increasing status to nearly its monopoly. What follows is the discussion of the controversies related to the primacy of the English language in scientific discourse: the accompanying epistemological and cultural invasion related to Anglo-Saxon values and the marginalization of native languages. The author also shows the distortion of content, ideas, thoughts and style when translating scientific texts from native languages into English, in order to adapt them to the assumptions of Western culture. However, there are also the views the essence of which is the conviction that publishing in English allows scientists to participate in global science and gain global visibility, as well as those that assume that modern scientific English has got rid of its imperial values and has a neutral nature, it is simply a form of international communication. In conclusion, the author expresses his belief that regardless of the language of publishing, scientists can maintain such values as passion and academic freedom.

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