• The Crisis of Spain’s Political Elites – Systemic Factors or Mass Media Influence?

    The subject of the discussion below refers to the political situation in present-day Spain in the context of a broad systemic crisis (economic, political, values, leadership, discourse etc.). Moreover, it covers the media’s impact on the administrating elite who are also subject to the crisis. Th e research questions concern the nature of the interactions among the trifecta of political actors, the media and public opinion. The fundamental question is to what extent the crisis of political elites is a result of systemic dysfunction (a so called de-democratisation of political life) or an eff ect of the media’s activities, which have disclosed and publicised some of the dysfunctions of the above elites. This article will attempt to verify the hypothesis of the aforementioned de-democratisation process in Spain, the extent of the media presence in political life, and the mediatisation of their politics.

  • Promocja miast i regionów – hiszpańskie doświadczenia, polskie możliwości. Między fuzją pomysłów a transfuzją środków

    Polish and Spanish way of democratisations seems to be similar; however, nowadays Spanish government has to face up to the economic crisis. The main idea of the article is to compare political systems, especially how the local government invests money in so-called tourist attractions. As well as being useless, many of those objects are too expensive to be maintained. It is worth mentioning that some Polish local governments try to implement Spanish ideas (so-called “Bilbao effect”) to their environment, which is not only risky, but also unsuccessful.



      The objective of this article is to analyse the impact of the Spanish democratic transformation on its multilateral relations. It analyses the strategies of Spanish governments in the transformation era and the process of accession to NATO, the Council of Europe and the European Communities. Source analysis and criticism methods (applied mostly to Spanish- -language texts), as well as comparative analysis were employed for the needs of this article.
      Based on her research, the author concludes that changes to Spanish foreign policy were evolutionary in nature. Therefore, it took Spain several years to regain the full confidence of its partners. Before any breakthrough changes could occur in the multilateral dimension, Spain needed to normalise its bilateral relations.
      The democratic elections conducted on the 15th of June 1977 in Spain was the breakthrough without which no accession to any important international organisation could ever happen. As the event clinched the state’s democratisation, it paved the way for Spain to join soon the Council of Europe. The accession process for the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation was more complex. The Spanish political scene was divided in that matter. Spain’s accession to the European Communities was the longest process. It was subject not only to the state’s democratisation progress but also to economic issues.

  • The Legality of the Catalan Independence Referendums

    During the last decade the separatist activities of the Catalan nationalists have intensified. Despite the enactment of the Statute of Autonomy in 2006, extending the existing autonomy of the Autonomous Community, Catalonia’s governing political parties strived for total independence. In view of the consistent attitude of the central government in Madrid refusing any concessions on the extension of autonomy or independence, the Autonomous Government of Catalonia (Generalitat) appealed to the institutions of direct democracy, calling twice for a Catalan referendum on independence. In both cases, the Spanish Constitutional Court declared the referendum unlawful. In spite of this, Catalonia declared independence after the referendum of October 1st, 2017, although the effects of the declaration were also suspended – a situation so far unknown to law.

  • Welfare State Support for Families: a Comparative Family Policies Analysis in Poland and Spain

    The paper focuses on the analysis of recent family policies on selected programs and actions in Poland and Spain. The analysis was made on the basis of a comparison of three spheres of supporting the families in both countries: financial support, institutional support and conditions of parental leaves. The main data sources came from the OECD and Ministries in Poland and Spain. Results show that there are differences between Poland and Spain in terms of funds assigned to the support of families and children, in terms of the length of maternity and paternity leaves, the level and types of fi nancial support, and also the types of institutional support.

  • Constitutional graphic symbols of Spain and its autonomous communities

    Flags and coats of arms are graphic state symbols. They define national and regional identity. State and regional graphic symbols have a particularly important place in legal acts in Spain. Symbols of each autonomous community are listed in their statutes. Most of them refer to the rich historical and cultural tradition of the region. In only a few cases, it was necessary to create flags or coat of arms in connection with the establishment of an autonomous community in the early 1980s.

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