sports diplomacy

  • Sports Performance and Shaping International Image of a China: Towards Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Author: Michał Marcin Kobierecki
    E-mail: mkobierecki@uni.lodz.pl
    Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 138-150
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017109
    PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017109.pdf

    China is a country that has been using sport in order to reach political goals for many years. Lately such political exploitation of sport is directed at shaping the desirable international image of this country. This is done most of all through hosting sports events, but also through sports victories. The last aspect is the subject of this research. The aim of the article is therefore to investigate the issue of utilization of performance in international sport in order to enhance international image of a China. The research presented in the article is a case study concerning sport as a tool of nation-branding. Its main objective is to analyse motivation of China’s decision-makers to use sports performance in order to enhance the country’s international perception, and to observe how this goals is executed. The main hypothesis to be tested states that China perceives sports performance as an important tool of enhancing its international image. 

  • Ping–Pong Diplomacy and its Legacy in the American Foreign Policy

    Author: Michał Marcin Kobierecki
    E-mail: mkobierecki@uni.lodz.pl
    Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 304-316
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016023
    PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016023.pdf

    The aim of the paper is to investigate ping–pong diplomacy between the Unites States and China, which was used by both countries as a diplomatic tool, aimed at achieving political rapprochement despite ideological dissonance and conflict over Taiwan. Both governments were seeking a way to establish closer relations but the circumstances prevented them from traditional diplomatic contacts. Sports exchange proved to be a convenient solution. In the paper the Author attempts to verify a hypothesis on a subsequent legacy of the ping–pong diplomacy in American foreign policy. The study allowed to determine reasons for the need to employ sport in order to establish closer relations between two hostile actors of international relations. It is an attempt to answer a question concerning the intentional or coincidental character of the analysed sports exchange. The paper is an empirical case study on one of the prime examples of positive sports diplomacy and was conducted with the use of decision–making. 

  • Sports Exchange as a Tool of Shaping State’s Image: The Case of China

    Author: Michał Marcin Kobierecki
    Institution: University of Łódź
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 109-120
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.59.08
    PDF: apsp/59/apsp5908.pdf

    China is a country that employs a number of tools in order to shape its positive international perception. Sport plays an important role in this area. The aim of the research is to investigate the issue of sports exchanges and their role in shaping international image of China. The analysis is an empirical case study and is aimed at answering a research question concerning how sports exchanges may be used in order to shape a desired international image of a country. According to the main hypothesis to be tested in the article, through sports exchanges China managed to make a swift from the old, unidirectional sports diplomacy, to a more dialogue-oriented, reciprocal form.

  • Stosunki amerykańsko-irańskie jako przykład próby zbliżenia wrogich państw z wykorzystaniem sportu

    Author: Michał Marcin Kobierecki
    Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 49–66
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2017.53.03
    PDF: apsp/53/apsp5303.pdf

    Celem artykułu jest zbadanie dyplomacji sportowej pomiędzy Iranem a Stanami Zjednoczonymi, która stanowi przykład dyplomacji sportowej ukierunkowanej na zbliżenie nieprzychylnych względem siebie państw. Kraje te nie utrzymują bowiem stosunków dyplomatycznych, a ich wzajemne relacje można scharakteryzować jako wrogie. Pod koniec XX wieku dwa państwa zaczęły nawiązywać kontakty sportowe ukierunkowane na wspieranie zbliżenia.
    W artykule podjęta została próba weryfikacji hipotezy, zgodnie z którą dyplomacja sportowa pomiędzy USA i Iranem miała znaczenie jedynie wtórne i nie byłaby możliwa bez woli politycznej. Podjęta zostanie ponadto próba analizy doboru poszczególnych dyscyplin sportowych wykorzystanych w ramach dyplomacji sportowej pomiędzy Iranem a USA, jeśli chodzi o ich pozytywny bądź negatywny wpływ na jej skuteczność.

  • Dyplomacja sportowa jako kategoria nauk o polityce

    Author: Michał Marcin Kobierecki
    Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 113–128
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2016.51.07
    PDF: apsp/51/apsp5107.pdf

    Celem artykułu jest zbadanie pojęcia dyplomacja sportowa. Mimo że znaczenie sportu w dyplomacji wydaje się być dostrzegane i rozumiane przez badaczy w Polsce, zagadnienie to nie było jak dotąd szerzej analizowane. Jako że termin ten jest zazwyczaj uznawany za jeden z wymiarów dyplomacji publicznej, artykuł poświęcony jest także zbadaniu kwestii roli i miejsca sportu w jej ramach.
    W treści artykułu przedstawiony został szereg sposobów rozumienia pojęcia dyplomacja sportowa prezentowanych przez różnych badaczy. Naukowcy rozumieją ten termin w sposób zróżnicowany, w szczególności jeżeli chodzi o jego zakres. W związku z tym w artykule podjęto próbę zaproponowania najbardziej adekwatnego sposobu rozumienia tego pojęcia.

  • Diplomatic Subjectivity of FIFA in the Context of Selecting World Cup Host

    Author: Michał Marcin Kobierecki
    Institution: University of Łódź
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 216-231
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.64.13
    PDF: apsp/64/apsp6413.pdf

    The goal of the research was to investigate FIFA, one of the most important international sports organisations, from the perspective of its diplomatic subjectivity. It is a case study concerning the process of selection of the World Cup hosts by FIFA, in reference to the engagement of presidents, prime ministers and other representatives of national authorities of states that hosted FIFA World Cup in bidding for the tournament within last the 30 years. The hypothesis that was verified within the research assumed that through selecting World Cup host FIFA obtains diplomatic subjectivity. This refers to research questions concerning the willingness of state leaders to engage in contacts and negotiations with sports officials and reasons for such engagement.

  • Recognition of National Football Federations and the Diplomatic Role of FIFA

    Author: Michał Marcin Kobierecki
    E-mail: michal.kobierecki@uni.lodz.pl
    Institution: University of Łódź, (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8180-5710
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 158–169
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020209
    PDF: ppsy/49-2/ppsy2020209.pdf

    The paper refers to the category of sports diplomacy and aims to investigate the issue of diplomatic subjectivity of international sports organizations, by the example of FIFA and its prerogative to grant membership to national football federations. Such processes on some occasions are connected to political and diplomatic significance, particularly in relation to states without universal international recognition, for whom participation in international sport is an important tool in their struggle for legitimization. The research question that the author attempts to answer is whether membership of national sports organization in the international sports federations can be meaningful from the perspective of the state’s endeavors toward securing international recognition. The hypothesis stated that the prerogative of international sports bodies such as FIFA to recognize national sports federations enhances their diplomatic subjectivity.

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