• Dealing with a Trauma Burdened Past: between Remembering and Forgetting

    Recognition that societies will not be able to build a future as long as they do not face the ‘demons of the past’ has become a kind of universal truth over the last decades of the 20th Century (Gibney et al., 2008, p. 1). This view, though challenging and ambiguous, is reflected in the globally present attempts to improve or rebuild relations within and between different communities at the domestic and international level. The question concerning, on the one hand, the essence and most essential elements and, on the other hand, the instruments and the limitations of rebuilding relations, as well as the political implications of those processes have become the broad area of interest and the discourse leading to significantly different ideas and solutions. The article aims at presenting different approaches referring to dealing with the conflicted and traumatized past both at the domestic and international level. Some selected instruments and methods which enable movement from a divided past towards a common future are discussed namely the strategy of engagement with the past versus the strategy of avoidance of the past. The special attention is paid to the notion of reconciliation understood as a process of rebuilding of relations through the multi-dimensional transformation of former adversaries after the period of violence and repression.

  • Teoria i praktyka funkcjonowania samorządności w Polsce po 1989 r.

    In the process of political transformation, initiated the events of the Round Table in 1989. Important place and importance is given to issues of self-government. Political science literature suggests in this regard to the fact that one of the pillars of political transformation in Poland was the transition from a monopoly of the central government to local government. Local government reform introduced by the Act of 1990 8. III. Introduced a new system of local government. Local government has become the authority of the local community and gave her the right to self-determination of its underlying decisions of political, economic and social. Breaking the monopoly of local government reform and the state Democratic Party has introduced local government model, derived from the local community and serving the public administrative functions under the permanent control of the representatives of the local community.

  • Transformacії tradicіjjnoї rіzdvjanoї obrjadovostі bojjkіv ukraїnskikh Karpat na pochatku KHKHІ stolіttja

    The transformations of the Bojkos’ Christmas Rites of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains in the beginning of XXI century. Th e thesis researches Christmas rites in Bojkivshchyna during Ukraine’s independence and is based upon analysis of scientifi c literature and a large amount of information sources. Th e author found out that motivation for many Christmas ceremonies was changed or lost; many rites cease to be actively used altogether. However it is proved that the basis of Christmas rites in Bojkivshchyna is retained better if compared to other Ukrainian regions. Th e paper describes and analyses

  • Is Technology a Magic Wand? When Tablets’ affordances meet Teaching Practices: Insights on Didactic Design

    This text presents and discusses results of empirical research conducted during 3 school semesters (1.5 of school year) in a primary school in Poland. The research focused on the introduction of tablets (iPads) to didactic design and aimed at the observation of learning processes of the entire school community in connection with the appearance of a new educational actor. We used a qualitative research approach, mainly video-ethnography (60 hours of recorded material). This research approach resulted in the identification of maps of teaching and learning practices and their meanings in the changing school field.


      The objective of this article is to analyse the impact of the Spanish democratic transformation on its multilateral relations. It analyses the strategies of Spanish governments in the transformation era and the process of accession to NATO, the Council of Europe and the European Communities. Source analysis and criticism methods (applied mostly to Spanish- -language texts), as well as comparative analysis were employed for the needs of this article.
      Based on her research, the author concludes that changes to Spanish foreign policy were evolutionary in nature. Therefore, it took Spain several years to regain the full confidence of its partners. Before any breakthrough changes could occur in the multilateral dimension, Spain needed to normalise its bilateral relations.
      The democratic elections conducted on the 15th of June 1977 in Spain was the breakthrough without which no accession to any important international organisation could ever happen. As the event clinched the state’s democratisation, it paved the way for Spain to join soon the Council of Europe. The accession process for the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation was more complex. The Spanish political scene was divided in that matter. Spain’s accession to the European Communities was the longest process. It was subject not only to the state’s democratisation progress but also to economic issues.

  • Informal Constitutional Change. The Case of Poland

    This article describes the theoretical concept of constitutional change. The cases of constitutional changes and amendments since 1989 have been analyzed in the text. The historical approach is used as a background for the current Polish events conceptualization.
    The theories formulated by Y. Raznai, R. Albert, B. Ackermann, S. Griffin, D. Landau are applied for purpose of the analysis. The authors consider the problems of: constitutional change, constitutional amendment and dismemberment, constitutional moment, as well as a kind of constitutionalism, which is connected to an abuse of power by the parliamentary majority (illiberal constitutionalism).
    This paper analyses following issues: the conceptualization of constitutional amendment procedure and constitutional change in formal and informal ways as well as the constitutional moment. Moreover, the Polish academia opinions on the amendment and change are presented. Eventually, the identification of the recent Polish systemic events from a theoretical perspective and the summary of the research are provided.
    The assessment of current events takes into account the historical background – the transformation started in 1989 and ended with the adoption of the 1997 Constitution. The conclusion is connected to identification of the constitutional moments which legitimize or not the transformation of the system.

  • Europeanization of Slovak Political System During the Accession Process to the European Union

    Europeanization acted at all stages of society development in Slovakia, with varying degrees of intensity and in various forms, since the signing of the association agreement with the European Union. A significant impact was already in the stage of transition, when the consistent implementation of the Copenhagen criteria insist by the EC/EU help to return to the path of democratic development in Slovakia. However, it wasn’t just about the application of the generally accepted principles of parliamentary democracy, but also on the active impact of the EC/EU institutions within the existing opportunities provided by the signing of the Association Agreement. A qualitatively new stage began after completion of the Copenhagen criteria and the opening of negotiations, which was to implement acquis communautaire into the internal legal order of the country. At this stage, clearly dominated the process of Europeanization “top-down”, i.e. the adoption of standards, laws of the European Union, to make country compatible with other countries of the EU. After the entry of the Slovakia into the EU, a two-sided process of Europeanization: “up-down” and “bottom-up” has started.

  • Польские «следы» в современной русской языковой картине мира

    The article is devoted to some aspects of the impact on the Russian language picture of the world of Polish borrowings as a result of contact between the Russian and Polish peoples.

  • Происхождение Сатаны (модификация древних традиций)

    Origin of Satan (modification of ancient traditions)

    The article considers the problem of correlation of concepts “God” and “Satan” in religion. The solution to the problem the author sees in the traditions of Zoroastrianism that had a profound impact on the monotheistic religions.

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