Turkmenistan

Polish FDI in Central Asian Countries

Author: Krystyna Gomółka
Institution: Gdańsk University of Technology (Poland)
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 20–38
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018102
PDF: ppsy/47-1/ppsy2018102.pdf

Since gaining independence, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan gradually opened their markets to foreign investors. Before Poland’s accession to the European Union, the activities of Polish investors in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan were based on bilateral treaties concluded by Poland with those countries. Later, except Turkmenistan, they were governed by the partnership and cooperation agreements between the European Communities and their Member States. Despite the ample investment opportunities and favourable conditions for access to the market, the activity of Polish companies in these markets has not produced a significant effect. Poland invested with more considerable success on the markets in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It made investment attempts in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, leaving out Turkmenistan. The reason why Poland has a weak position in these markets is the distance between the partners and inability of Polish companies to effectively compete with large multinational companies which have been operating there for years. In the Kazakh market, good investment prospects are available for waste management, petrochemical, mining and road construction companies. In Kyrgyzstan, there are cooperation possibilities in the area of modern agricultural and processing technologies and establishment of fruit and vegetable processing enterprises. In Tajikistan, enterprises can invest in petroleum and natural gas extraction and exploitation, the fuel market, processing of precious metals and construction of conventional and hydroelectric power plants. In Turkmenistan, Polish companies can compete for road, railway and housing construction contracts, whereas in Uzbekistan they can invest in businesses covered by government tax reductions.

Instytucja Pełnomocnego Rzecznika ds. Praw Człowieka w Turkmenistanie – wymiar normatywny i praktyka

Author: Jerzy Szukalski
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Stosunków Międzynarodowych i Komunikacji Społecznej w Chełmie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9960-7571
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 223-244
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.02.13
PDF: ppk/48/ppk4813.pdf

Institution of the Commissioner for Human Rights in Turkmenistan – normative dimension and practice

The article presents the institution of the Commissioner for Human Rights in Turkmenistan, also officially referred to as the Ombudsman of Turkmenistan. The institution of Ombudsman was established in the Constitution of Turkmenistan in a new editing of 14 September 2016, and detailed regulations were included in the Law of 23 November 2016 “On Ombudsman”. Statutory regulations concerning the Ombudsman generally meet the standards of similar acts being in force in democratic countries. However, in the reality of the authoritarian system of Turkmenistan, where fundamental human rights are violated, the new institution is not able to perform the functions for which it was established. The evidence is the Ombudsman’s first report for 2017, which clearly lacks cases relating to human rights of the first generation. As a matter of fact, until democratic changes take place in Turkmenistan, as well as change in the policy of the state authorities in their approach to the protection of individual rights and freedoms, the institution of the Ombudsman will remain a facade institution.

Research on Systemic Transformation in the Countries of Central Asia

Author: Tadeusz Bodio
Institution: University of Warsaw, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8873-7434
Author: Andrzej Wierzbicki
Institution: University of Warsaw, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5493-164X
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 111-133
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020307
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020307.pdf

The article presents the goals, tasks, organization and major stages of implementation of the international programme of research on transformation in the countries Central Asia. The research has been conducted since 1997 by a team of political scientists from the University of Warsaw in cooperation with representatives of other Polish and foreign universities.

Polityka bezpieczeństwa energetycznego Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej wobec państw kaspijskich Azji Centralnej

Author: Justyna Misiągiewicz
Institution: Katedra Bezpieczeństwa Międzynarodowego, Instytut Nauk o Polityce i Administracji, Wydział Politologii i Dziennikarstwa UMCS, Instytut Społeczno-Ekonomiczny, Akademia Zamojska
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0224-2735
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 7-26
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap2022.2.01
PDF: ap/26/ap2601.pdf

Energy Security Policy of the People’s Republic of China towards the Caspian States of Central Asia

In contemporary international relations, the issue of energy security is becoming fundamental. Access to energy resources is an existential need of every country, conditioning its economic and social development. In such a situation, states try to construct long-term energy security policies to ensure smooth supplies of raw materials. The research problem is the analysis of the energy security policy of the People’s Republic of China towards the Caspian states of Central Asia: Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. In the research process, a hypothesis was verified, assuming that China’s energy security policy in the Caspian region of Central Asia is determined by the increased demand of this superpower for energy resources and geographical proximity to oil and gas deposits located in Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) became interested in the hydrocarbon resources of the Central Asian region right after the collapse of the USSR. At that time, the energy security policy of this superpower was implemented in several stages: from gaining access to the oil and gas reserves of the countries of the region to the construction of export pipelines supplying the absorptive Chinese market. Thus, the analysis presents the conditions of the PRC’s energy security policy, its institutional dimension and actions towards Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, both in upstream and midstream terms.

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