Turkmenistan

  • Polish FDI in Central Asian Countries

    Author: Krystyna Gomółka
    E-mail: Krystyna.Gomolka@zie.pg.edu.pl
    Institution: Gdańsk University of Technology (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 20–38
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018102
    PDF: ppsy/47-1/ppsy2018102.pdf

    Since gaining independence, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan gradually opened their markets to foreign investors. Before Poland’s accession to the European Union, the activities of Polish investors in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan were based on bilateral treaties concluded by Poland with those countries. Later, except Turkmenistan, they were governed by the partnership and cooperation agreements between the European Communities and their Member States. Despite the ample investment opportunities and favourable conditions for access to the market, the activity of Polish companies in these markets has not produced a significant effect. Poland invested with more considerable success on the markets in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It made investment attempts in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, leaving out Turkmenistan. The reason why Poland has a weak position in these markets is the distance between the partners and inability of Polish companies to effectively compete with large multinational companies which have been operating there for years. In the Kazakh market, good investment prospects are available for waste management, petrochemical, mining and road construction companies. In Kyrgyzstan, there are cooperation possibilities in the area of modern agricultural and processing technologies and establishment of fruit and vegetable processing enterprises. In Tajikistan, enterprises can invest in petroleum and natural gas extraction and exploitation, the fuel market, processing of precious metals and construction of conventional and hydroelectric power plants. In Turkmenistan, Polish companies can compete for road, railway and housing construction contracts, whereas in Uzbekistan they can invest in businesses covered by government tax reductions.

  • Instytucja Pełnomocnego Rzecznika ds. Praw Człowieka w Turkmenistanie – wymiar normatywny i praktyka

    Author: Jerzy Szukalski
    E-mail: jerzy.szukalski@onet.eu
    Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Stosunków Międzynarodowych i Komunikacji Społecznej w Chełmie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9960-7571
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 223-244
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.02.13
    PDF: ppk/48/ppk4813.pdf

    The article presents the institution of the Commissioner for Human Rights in Turkmenistan, also officially referred to as the Ombudsman of Turkmenistan. The institution of Ombudsman was established in the Constitution of Turkmenistan in a new editing of 14 September 2016, and detailed regulations were included in the Law of 23 November 2016 “On Ombudsman”. Statutory regulations concerning the Ombudsman generally meet the standards of similar acts being in force in democratic countries. However, in the reality of the authoritarian system of Turkmenistan, where fundamental human rights are violated, the new institution is not able to perform the functions for which it was established. The evidence is the Ombudsman’s first report for 2017, which clearly lacks cases relating to human rights of the first generation. As a matter of fact, until democratic changes take place in Turkmenistan, as well as change in the policy of the state authorities in their approach to the protection of individual rights and freedoms, the institution of the Ombudsman will remain a facade institution.

Wiadomość do:

 

 

© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart