Ukrainians

Polityka eksterminacji obywateli Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej przez Trzecią Rzeszę i Związek Sowiecki w latach 1939–1945 Część II: Polityka Związku Sowieckiego

Author: Dariusz Matelski
Institution: Instytut Wschodni Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 205-226
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017412
PDF: npw/15/npw2017412.pdf

One of the basic instruments in the implementation of an anti-Polish nation policy was an unprecedented on such a scale forced displacement of population. In the case of Moscow, it was a reference to the tsarist policy of mixing the peoples of the empire. It has been systematically implemented since the days of Tsar Ivan the Terrible (1530–1584), and under Joseph Stalin’s rule, it has grown into the official ethnicity policy of the Soviet state. The extermination policy of the Soviet Union was aimed at full unification of the looted territories with the rest of the Soviet empire. It was realized through physical liquidation of Polish intelligentsia, officials of Polish state administration, police and army. Already on September 18th, right after the invasion of Poland, several thousand Poles were shot by Soviet soldiers and military police; without a trial. Forced deportations, public executions, mass murders and concentration camps are a common feature of both murderous systems: Nazism and Stalinism. Except for the gas chambers, all methods of destroying humans were already earlier applied in the East (since November 1917), and later in Nazi Germany (since January 1933). The only difference was that from June 22, 1941, Stalin was counting on emergence of a territorially unspecified Polish state, which Hitler had never planned. Poland as the only member of the Allied side in World War II was shifted territorial (and reduced by 100 thousand sq. Km compared to August 31, 1939) and forced to exchange population, and became a satellite of the Soviet Union for 45-year – all at the request of Moscow.

Динамика численности этнических украинцев в УССР: на основе итогов Всесоюзных переписей населения 1959 г., 1970 г. и 1979 г.

Author: Надежда Киндрачук
Institution: Прикарпатский национальный университет имени Василия Стефаника
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7505-0668
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 40-53
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20192003
PDF: npw/20/npw2003.pdf

Динамика численности этнических украинцев в УССР: на основе итогов Всесоюзных переписей населения 1959 г., 1970 г. и 1979 г.

В статье исследованы Всесоюзные переписи населения 1959 г., 1970 г., 1979 г. как основной источник для комплексного изучения динамики численности и территориального размещения украинцев в разных регионах УССР в течение 1960-х – 1970-х гг.; охарактеризовано национальную политику советской власти, которая руководствовалась приоритетом государственного общенационального единства всего «советского народа» и презирала ценность этнической нации. Выяснено, что Украина была одним из центров аккумулирования эмиграционных потоков в Советском Союзе, из-за чего многонациональное общество УССР, основу которого составляли украинцы, постепенно превращалось в двунациональное, где украинское большинство сосуществовало рядом с непрерывно растущим русским меньшинством. Такие переселения проводились прежде всего по политическим соображениям и были направлены на то, чтобы коренной народ терял свои национальные особенности – язык, культуру и тому подобное.

The Czech Republic through the eyes of Ukrainians

Author: Pavlína Kobzová
Institution: Palacký University in Olomouc
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 115-124
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2019.01.07
PDF: em/10/em1007.pdf

W artykule zaprezentowano perspektywę Ukraińców mieszkających w Republice Czeskiej dotyczącą wybranych aspektów życia. Celem podjętych badań było ustalenie, jak Ukraińcy postrzegają życie w Republice Czeskiej, czeską kulturę i edukację, oraz co dostrzegają jako różnice i podobieństwa w obu kulturach i sposobach edukacji. Zwrócono uwagę, że badanie dotyczy subiektywnych doświadczeń, postaw i opinii indywidualnych respondentów. Dlatego, nie reprezentuje ono całej ukraińskiej mniejszości narodowej żyjącej w Republice Czeskiej. Grupa badana składała się z dwóch grup respondentów o następującym składzie: pierwsza zawierała 8 respondentów Ukraińców na stałe mieszkających w Czechach ponad 10 lat, w drugiej grupie – wywiad przeprowadzono wśród 7 ukraińskich studentów, uczących się w Czechach, oraz wśród ich rodziców. W badaniu zastosowano podejście jakościowe, a dokładnie metodę półustrukturyzowanego wywiadu z respondentami. Analizę uzyskanych danych przeprowadzono za pomocą otwartego, a potem osiowego i selektywnego kodowania.

Ethnodemographic policy of the CPSU – CPU of the 1960’s – 1970’s: on the example of the Ukrainian ethnic group

Author: Nadia Kindrachuk
Institution: Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7505-0668
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 61-75
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2022304
PDF: rop/21/rop2104.pdf

The article analyzes the ethno-demographic policy of the CPSU – CPU of the 60’s – 70’s of the twentieth century, which was guided by the priority of national unity of the entire Soviet people and neglected the value of the Ukrainian ethnic group and its national development. The state command-administrative system under the slogans of “proletarian internationalism”, “prosperity and rapprochement of nations in the USSR”, “formation of a new historical community – the Soviet people” pursued a policy of assimilation of the titular nation of the Ukrainian SSR. Demographic, economic and social processes that took place in the society of that time, especially decreased in some regions of the republic the number of indigenous peoples. The correlation of macro-processes (intra-republican and inter-republican migration) with internal micro-processes in Ukraine (enhanced russification, interethnic marriages, etc.) promoted assimilation, depopulation of Ukrainians and threatened their national future. The paper finds that in the conflict of unfavorable circumstances resulting from the Soviet assimilation policy, the number of the Ukrainian nation in the USSR slowed down, difficult, but did not grow in both quantitative and qualitative terms.

Етнокультурні Українсько-Литовські контакти Литовсько-Польської доби

Author: Інна Мартинчук (Inna Martynchuk)
Institution: Донецький національний університет імені Василя Стуса (Vasyl’ Stus Donetsk National University)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9665-3289
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 109-120
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/PPUSN.2022.01.10
PDF: pomi/04/pomi410.pdf

Ethnocultural Ukrainian-Lithuanian contacts of the Lithuanian-Polish era

In the course research the problems of the common political history of Ukraine, Poland and Lithuania were comprehended, first of all, the influence of the Slavic world on the process of formation of the Lithuanian state, mutual influences of historical and cultural nature. The article focuses on the cultural interethnic contacts of Lithuanians and Ukrainians. Linguistic interethnic contacts, Lithuanian-Ukrainian interactions in family and marriage traditions of Ukrainians are revealed. Within the frameworks of the study the language situation was described. It can be argued that the Rus influence was stronger here, because the so-called “Rus language” was used both in everyday life and in official records. But it posed difficulties in its linguistic interpretation, many variants for its nomination were suggested which was described in detail in the article. Numerous Lithuanians in modern Ukrainian lexicon representing various fields undoubtedly testifies to the importance of Lithuanian-Ukrainian contacts in the Middle Ages and the historical contribution of Lithuanians to the formation of the Ukrainian ethnic group. The reciprocity of Ukrainian-Lithuanian contacts is evidenced by numerous Ukrainian borrowings in the modern Lithuanian language, most of which undeniably entered the vocabulary during the time of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. A striking example of Lithuanian-Ukrainian interaction presents such a sphere of spiritual life as marital relations. After all, in the Ukrainian lands beginning from the XVI to the first half of the XIX century Lithuanian Statutes were in force (before the introduction of new Russian legislation), to which the norms of Russkaya Pravda regulating marital and family relations in the Kyiv state were transferred. Thus, Ukrainians got their own marriage and family traditions. The institution of marriage in the Lithuanian Statutes is considered quite extensively, but to a greater extent they regulated relations between the more affluent sections of the society at that time. Meanwhile, certain norms were universal: a clear definition of marriage age, defining the rights and responsibilities of parents and relatives in creating a new family, the obligations of the groom, determining the position of women and their children, and others.

Scientific and Educational Life of Ukrainians in Bavaria

Author: Artem Kokosh
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4785-2190
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 104-116
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233805
PDF: npw/38/npw3805.pdf

The phenomenon of the Ukrainian national minority is well known in Bavaria. Despite the noticeable presence in Landtag, local universities, Bavarian Academy of Sciences, diplomatic offices and other institutions, they are not the most populous minority in the region. Moreover, in the early 2000s there was the Ukrainian school, Technical- Husbandry Institute and University which had the legal acts to offer education to not only Ukrainians but also to people of other nationalities. What opportunities are available to Ukrainians in Bavaria to benefit from favourable conditions and how is the local authority handling the matter of the Ukrainian institutions? The main objective of the research is to identify the main periods of Ukrainian presence in scientific and educational institutions in Bavaria, as well as research their status in the region. Moreover, the support of these institutions to Ukrainian refugees in 2022 will be studied. Examining the Ukrainian refugee situation in Europe, the article will also evaluate the utility of these institutions. As a final point, the study presents the capacity of these institutions to affect the integration of students into society nowadays.

Religious activity and expression of national identity of Ukrainians during the introduction of the new Soviet ritual: 1960’s–1970’s

Author: Nadia Kindrachuk
Institution: Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7505-0668
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 286-302
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233813
PDF: npw/38/npw3813.pdf

The party ideologues of the Soviet totalitarian state artificially developed and actively introduced into the life of the titular nation of the Ukrainian SSR a new Soviet ritualism, the main goal of which was to raise from every Ukrainian a Russified citizen of the Soviet type without national identity and religious beliefs, with a Russian consciousness, mentality and language. The article proves that the ancient church and religious traditions and customs of the Ukrainian people continued to be a part of the everyday culture of Ukrainians. The religious activity of representatives of the Ukrainian ethnic group was especially observed during the celebration of Christmas, Epiphany, Easter and other church holidays. And although the number of adherents of religious rites in the republic was different – from less in the East to more in the West, Christian values, despite atheism, continued to be the basis of the spiritual life of the absolute majority of Ukrainians.

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