• Informal Constitutional Change. The Case of Poland

    This article describes the theoretical concept of constitutional change. The cases of constitutional changes and amendments since 1989 have been analyzed in the text. The historical approach is used as a background for the current Polish events conceptualization.
    The theories formulated by Y. Raznai, R. Albert, B. Ackermann, S. Griffin, D. Landau are applied for purpose of the analysis. The authors consider the problems of: constitutional change, constitutional amendment and dismemberment, constitutional moment, as well as a kind of constitutionalism, which is connected to an abuse of power by the parliamentary majority (illiberal constitutionalism).
    This paper analyses following issues: the conceptualization of constitutional amendment procedure and constitutional change in formal and informal ways as well as the constitutional moment. Moreover, the Polish academia opinions on the amendment and change are presented. Eventually, the identification of the recent Polish systemic events from a theoretical perspective and the summary of the research are provided.
    The assessment of current events takes into account the historical background – the transformation started in 1989 and ended with the adoption of the 1997 Constitution. The conclusion is connected to identification of the constitutional moments which legitimize or not the transformation of the system.

  • Myśl polityczna polskiego konspiracyjnego ruchu narodowego w czasie II wojny światowej

    Political thought of polish underground national movement during World War II

    Nationalists were one of the numerous Polish political movements during World War II. Actively engaging in the fight against the occupying forces, they suffered heavy losses, but does not prevent them in the creation of significant heritage in the field of political thought. The aim of the article is to present the political thought of Polish national movement during the Second World War. Historical, qualitative and comparative methods were used. The whole has been divided into several parts,, in which author examines the with issues of political thought as: Polish war aims, vision of state borders, ratio to national minorities, vision of the political system, economic vision, vision of national security, education and upbringing. The whole article has to show how rich the heritage of those generations.

  • Geneza republikańskiej głowy państwa w Polsce

    Artykuł przedstawia genezę republikańskiej głowy państwa w Polsce po I wojnie światowej (do uchwalenia Konstytucji marcowej). Był to szczególnie istotny moment, w którym dokonał się wybór formy ustrojowej odbudowywanego państwa polskiego. Autor zwraca uwagę na istotny związek dziejących się w czasie I wojny światowej wydarzeń historycznych, w tym zwłaszcza zmian ustrojowych zachodzących w państwach zaborczych na decyzję o wyborze republikańskiej drogi ustrojowej.

  • Konstytucja helwecka (1798) – pierwsza konstytucja Szwajcarii

    The constitution of the Helvetic Republic of 1798 was the first act of constitutional rank in the history of the State. Developed by the Swiss, foreign institutional solutions separate Swiss tradition contained and to the resistance of the cantons has been imposed by force under the pressure of the French troops. For 5 years of duration, based on her settlement had taken place political experiment where a total rupture with the centuries-old model of Confederation of cantons to the State of a „One and indivisible”. The Constitution also created the first legislative authority of the Republic (the Senate and the Great Council), the Executive – Directorate and Judicial power – the Supreme Court. In addition, a set of freedoms and civil liberties.

  • Monarcha brytyjski jako gwarant konstytucyjnych podstaw ustroju

    Under unwritten constitution, part of which are constitutional conventions courts are unable to guarantee obedience to constitutional rules and values. In United Kingdom it is therefore the monarch who stands as a custodian of the constitution. Royal prerogatives that are normally exercised only on advice of responsible ministers can be used to protect constitution. The most important are so-called reserve powers to dismiss prime minister and other ministers, to dissolve parliament and to give royal assent. The Monarch is able to successfully perform this function despite the want of democratic legitimacy but he should always be cautious and act only if he is perfectly positive that his intervention is absolutely necessary. He would therefore be entitled to intervene only in a dire emergency if political actors stood against the fundamental rules of parliamentary democracy, responsible government and sovereignty of the people.

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