war in Ukraine

Ukraine and the End of Post-Cold War Europe

Author: Alicja Stańco-Wawrzyńska
Institution: War Studies University in Warsaw & Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 151–155
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018116
PDF: ppsy/47-1/ppsy2018116.pdf

Book Review: Derek Averre & Kataryna Wolczuk (Eds.), The Ukraine Conflict. Security, Identity and Politics in the Wider Europe. Abingdon-New York: Routledge 2018 (pp. 251). ISBN 978-1-138-04743-3. Price: £115.00.

Constitutional Grounds for Introducing the State of Emergency. Comments in the Light of Threats Caused by the War in Ukraine, the Polish-Belarusian Border Crisis and the Covid-19 Pandemic

Author: Krzysztof Eckhardt
Institution: WSPIA Rzeszów School of Higher Education
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3338-9836
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 351-361
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2022.04.28
PDF: ppk/68/ppk6828.pdf

The author analyzes the threats to state security and citizens that have arisen in recent years in Poland from the point of view of regulating the prerequisites for a state of emergency, trying to answer the question whether they justify the need to change the existing constitutional solutions. The general conclusion, which arises from these considerations, is that the constitution in this area does not require urgent amendment, while changes to the legislation are desirable.

Evolution of the Methodology of Conducting Military Operations on the Example of the Clash of Two-Speed Civilisations During the Conflict in Ukraine 2014–2022

Author: Szymon Mitkow
Institution: Military University of Technology (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2845-2589
Author: Marcin Górnikiewicz
Institution: Military University of Technology (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1391-7841
Author: Ewa Sługocka
Institution: Team for Service in International Military Structures (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3151-4701
Published online: 10 November 2022
Final submission: 22 September 2022
Printed issue: 2023
Source: Show
Page no: 12
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202264
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202264.pdf

The difference in the methodology of conducting military operations by Russian and Ukrainian troops during the war ongoing since February 2022 is striking. It does not result only from the adopted convention of conducting these activities but is conditioned on a much deeper mental level resulting from cultural conditions. They determine the perception and understanding of the phenomenon of war. In other words, the operational and tactical methodology can be adapted to changing realities, provided that the essence of such a change is understood in terms of achieving the assumed military and non-military goals. Furthermore, these goals could be achieved by conducting military operations according to a completely different methodology, probably with much greater effectiveness. Why, in such a perspective, did the Russian side choose such a barbaric way of conducting war, characterising the methodology of military actions of the past decades or even centuries? This paper aims to answer the research question: What premises condition the Russian methodology of military action in the Russian-Ukrainian war of 2022? Empirical methods were employed to obtain an answer to this question.

War in Ukraine as a Factor Determining the Scope of Judicial Review of Public Administration in Poland: Remarks on the Municipal Resolutions Providing Aid for Ukrainian Local and Regional Communities

Author: Jakub Grzegorz Firlus
Institution: Jagiellonian University (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5360-1833
Published online: 20 October 2022
Final submission: 16 July 2022
Printed issue: March 2023
Source: Show
Page no: 13
Pages: 133-145
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202246
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202246-9.pdf

This paper aims to determine whether the war in Ukraine will affect the scope of judicial verification of public administration in Poland. According to new legislation (the socalled Aid Act), which Polish Parliament passed shortly after February 24, 2022, the Polish municipalities (cities) are entitled to provide aid for local foreign communities, especially those within the borders of Ukraine. The basis for such aid will take the form of a proper municipal or city council resolution. The main issue concerning this form of aid is the necessity of applying Ukrainian law, at least in the context of decoding who is entitled to be a beneficiary. Against this background, it is vital to determine whether such circumstances as war and humanitarian reasons should affect the scope of judicial review. In theory, two approaches are available, formalism and judicial relativism which both are inappropriate. The author argues that the doctrine of deference, as understood by justice A. Scalia must be applied to secure both rule of law principle and the legitimacy of administrative courts in Poland. The main subject of the analysis was the content of the law, which was the starting point for analysing the views of the doctrine and jurisprudence. Due to the international nature of the issue, it was necessary to refer to the achievements of Ukrainian law.

Terrorism and the Hybrid Warfare in Aspect of War in Ukraine

Author: Wojciech Wróblewski
Institution: The Main School of Fire Service in Warsaw (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3415-9485
Published online: 30 October 2022
Final submission: 10 September 2022
Printed issue: December 2022
Source: Show
Page no: 13
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202254
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202254.pdf

Contemporary terrorism is characterised by a complex and networked model of operation. While the main objectives of terrorist acts remain the same, the attack environment, tactics and tools are changing. The international community is taking steps to strengthen counter-terrorism systems, but these are peaceful solutions. These models do not consider the conditions of hybrid armed conflicts in which terrorism is an element of combat tactics. It is a relatively new phenomenon and particularly dangerous for the civilian population. The acts of terror in hybrid warfare are not mechanisms with a simple scheme of action, and, as we try to show in this article, they represent a deliberate and broad spectrum of action. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand terrorism in the context of the threat of hybrid war (especially when terrorist acts complement hybrid tactics or significantly replace conventional tactics). This type of threat must be recognised before achieving its strategic goals. From the substantive point of view, the article studies the problem of terrorism as one of the threats of an armed conflict in Ukraine, commonly known as hybrid war.

A Definitional Framework for Cyber Warfare. The Ukrainian Aspect

Author: Marek Górka
Institution: Koszalin University of Technology (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6964-1581
Published online: 30 December 2022
Final submission: 16 December 2022
Printed issue: 2023
Source: Show
Page no: 14
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202272
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202272.pdf

The article outlines a position expressing the view that cyberspace opens up a new dimension of politics, in which cyber campaigns have the potential to become an important means or alternative to warfare in order to achieve strategic advantage. The consequences of cyber measures may not necessarily lead to disasters or military reprisals that disable a state’s critical infrastructure at an unexpected moment but instead may affect the sources of power and its legitimacy. This fact forces one to ponder the question of the nature of the cyber conflict. Global awareness among policymakers about cyber warfare has increased significantly over the past few years, and many states are preparing to defend themselves against this threat. Cyber warfare is part of the evolution of conventional warfare, which in turn is linked to the broad changes in the social and political spheres and, above all, in the technological sphere. This paper aims to seek an answer to the question: are we facing cyber warfare? The answer to this question will be provided by analysing the events in the initial stage of the war in Ukraine in 2022.

War in Ukraine from the Perspective of Polish and Slovak University Students

Author: Izabela Kapsa
Institution: Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Author: Natasza Lubik-Reczek
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
Author: Jaroslav Ušiak
Institution: Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 270-287
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2022.75.16
PDF: apsp/75/apsp7516.pdf

In the aftermath of the Russia’s annexation of Crimea and the outburst of conflict in the eastern part of Ukraine in 2014, thousands of Ukrainian migrants came to Poland. Many of them settled down and found jobs. On the onset of war in 2022, Ukrainian students were the most populous group among foreigners at Polish universities. The war in their home country had an impact on their families and friends. Young Poles, who made friends with Ukrainian students, take the war personally. Due to its unique nature, the perception of the conflict among young people has attracted the authors’ research interest. Additionally, it seems to be an added value when we compare attitudes of Polish students with those of Slovakian ones, as the latter do not share the same experience. The main goal of this article is to analyse opinions about the war in Ukraine among students studying in Poland and Slovakia, and their attitudes and behaviours towards refugees expressed online and offline. Results presented in the article have been taken from a questionnaire survey involving a group of 459 students. The survey took place in Spring 2022. The quantitative analysis of data is designed to provide answers to the following research questions: What sources of information about the war do young people use? What do young people think about the war in Ukraine, its causes and consequences? What forms of refugee-oriented activity do young people resort to? Have students encountered any form of resentment towards particular nationality groups in connection with the outbreak of the war?

The importance of the United States in Poland’s military security policy in the context of the war in Ukraine

Author: Łukasz Jureńczyk
Institution: Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1149-925X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 56-68
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233603
PDF: npw/36/npw3603.pdf

The subject of the article is the importance of the United States in Poland’s military security policy in relation to the war in Ukraine. The article begins with an introduction discussing its main assumptions and a synthetic historical background of the importance of the US for Poland and its security. The main part of the article is divided into two parts, the first one discussing the importance of the US in Poland’s military security policy after the Cold War. The second part is devoted to the change in the importance of the US in this policy in connection with the outbreak of the war in Ukraine and the main factors that determine this change. The aim of the article is to identify and analyze the changes in the importance of the United States in the Polish military security policy as a result of the outbreak of the war in Ukraine in 2022. The main research problem is whether the importance of the US in Poland’s military security policy increased as a result of the war, and if so, because of what main factors? The thesis of the article states that the war in Ukraine increased the importance of the US as the main external guarantor of Poland’s security and defense. This is due to the leading role played by the United States in military support for Ukraine and strengthening NATO’s eastern flank, including Poland, in the absence of leadership from Western European powers. The research included interviews with scientists and analysts from research centers in Washington and New York.

Credibility of American Security Guarantees towards Poland in the Context of the War in Ukraine

Author: Łukasz Jureńczyk
Institution: Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 257-271
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2023.79.13
PDF: apsp/79/apsp7913.pdf

The aim of the paper is to analyze and assess the credibility of American military security guarantees for Poland in the context of the war in Ukraine. This applies to the actions taken by the United States to increase Poland’s security after the aggressions in 2014 and 2022, as well as the reality of using the US Armed Forces to defend Poland in the event of a possible attack by Russia. As part of the research, interviews were conducted with scientists and experts from research centers in Washington, D.C. and New York. Although the United States has not met all of Poland’s security expectations, it has so far fulfilled its allied commitments. Besides, the American authorities unequivocally ensure that they will defend every inch of NATO territory, including Poland, which is in line with the strategic interests of the USA and the belief of the vast majority of American researchers.

War in Ukraine and Enduring Relevance of the Clausewitzian Theory

Author: Damian Winczewski
Institution: University of Maria-Curie Skłodowska in Lublin
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0809-4817
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 239-252
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2023.80.14
PDF: apsp/80/apsp8014.pdf

The article discusses selected theoretical and practical problems of the ongoing Russian Ukrainian war since 2014 from the perspective of Carl von Clausewitz’s political theory of war. It argues, first, that defining the first phase of the conflict as “hybrid war” on theoretical grounds is an unnecessary exercise that obscures the methodologically important difference between war and peace. Second, despite technological innovations, the concepts of “fog of war” and “friction” remain relevant. Third, the current phase of the conflict shows that the spontaneous and grassroots involvement of citizens in the war was a transitional phenomenon that became subordinated to central command structures. It also shows that from the perspective of Clausewitz’s theory, Russia’s strategic failure in the first part of the second phase of the conflict is completely understandable.

Challenges and Changes in Military and Defense Policy of Romania after the Outbreak of War in Ukraine

Author: Sylwester Gardocki
Institution: University of Warsaw (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1703-0172
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Page no: 11
Pages: 207-217
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202398
PDF: ppsy/52/ppsy202398.pdf

After the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022, Romania faced the imminent threat of an escalation of the armed conflict. The geographical proximity of military operations caused this, as the Black Sea location and the self-proclaimed republic of Transnistria located in neighboring Moldova. For this reason, Romania, like other European countries, faced the consequences of the outbreak of war and met economic, political, and military challenges. After the outbreak of war, the Romanian government had to take appropriate steps to help Ukraine and Ukrainian refugees who crossed the border into Romania. Although Romania adopted a distant attitude towards Ukraine, it did not block any aid projects and acted following NATO’s strategic actions. The outbreak of war in Ukraine contributed to rapid changes in the scope of the Romanian army. Several decisions were made to purchase new equipment and strengthen the armed forces.

Implications of the War in Ukraine in Terms of Inequalities in BRICS Countries: A Complexity Approach

Author: Marcin Grabowski
Institution: Jagiellonian University (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1447-1818
Author: Viktoriya Voytsekhovska
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University (Ukraine)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8976-8021
Year of publication: 2024
Source: Show
Pages: 125-143
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202408
PDF: ppsy/53-1/ppsy2024108.pdf

The study attempts to analyze the implications of the war in Ukraine for the issues of development and inequalities in the BRICS block. The so-called “emerging economies” play an essential role in the global system, both in economic and political terms. The article compares the political and economic backgrounds of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, their development, the “status quo” and their future aspirations, and analyses how the war in Ukraine may change the global development scenario. It is essential after the BRICS summit in South Africa invited six new members to the group. The article is rooted in complexity theory, supported by a mixed methodology approach. We show how the given research methodology, informed by complexity theory, can furnish new insights into global sustainability. The statistical method was used to gauge the correlation-regression impact of inequalities in BRICS countries on their sustainable development. The analysis allows several conclusions to be ventured: sustainable development is closely linked to inequalities and vice versa; the war has had a significant, multidimensional impact on the development paths and inequalities in the BRICS countries, which potentially could worsen, and the war is a major shocking event that can lead to global system changes and implications which are broader than merely for the subregion.

Państwa Grupy Wyszehradzkiej (V4) wobec wojny w Ukrainie. Dyplomacja obronna podczas pierwszego roku wojny

Author: Sabina Olszyk
Institution: Uniwersytet Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0408-3291
Year of publication: 2024
Source: Show
Pages: 32-59
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20244003
PDF: npw/40/npw4003.pdf

The Visegrád Group (V4) countries in the face of the war in Ukraine. Defense diplomacy during the first year of the war

Tense Russian-Ukrainian relations, sparked by the annexation of Crimea in 2014 and Ukraine’s pro-European and pro-NATO ambitions, led to a Russian invasion on the country, significantly undermining the sense of security in the region. Especially the countries in close proximity to Ukraine, including Visegrad Group states, felt the threat from Russia and took a series of actions to provide a solid and decisive response to Moscow’s neo-imperial actions. The support extended had a multidimensional character, encompassing political, diplomatic, military, financial, and humanitarian areas, playing a fundamental role in sustaining Ukraine’s functioning and its military capabilities, particularly in the initial period after the invasion. The aim of the article is to synthetically depict, from a Polish perspective, the engagement of Visegrad Group countries in implementing the ideas and tasks of defense diplomacy in the first year of the war in Ukraine, from February 24, 2022, to February 24, 2023.

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